This guide is about impaired spontaneous ventilation, impaired spontaneous ventilation nursing diagnosis, and impaired spontaneous ventilation nursing interventions.
Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation
What is impaired spontaneous ventilation?
Decreased energy reserves result in an individual’s inability to maintain breathing adequate to support life
What are the characteristics of impaired spontaneous ventilation?
• Decreased arterial oxygen saturation
• Decreased cooperation
• Decreased partial pressure of oxygen
• Decreased tidal volume
• Increased metabolic rate
• Increased partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide
• Increased restlessness
• Increased use of accessory muscles of respiration
Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation Nursing Diagnosis
How do you diagnose impaired spontaneous ventilation?
What can cause impaired spontaneous ventilation?
- Acute respiratory failure
- Metabolic factors
- Respiratory muscle fatigue
What are the signs of impaired spontaneous ventilation?
- Adventitious breath sounds
- Arterial ph less than 7.35
- Decreased tidal volume
- Decreased oxygen saturation (Sao2 <90%)
- Decreased Pao2 level (>50 to 60 mm Hg)
- Diminished lung sounds
- Forced vital capacity less than 10 mL/kg
- Increased Paco2 level (50 to 60 mm Hg or higher)
- Increased or decreased respiratory rate
- Inability to maintain airway (emesis, depressed gag, depressed cough).
•The client will maintain spontaneous gas exchange resulting in reduced dyspnea, normal oxygen saturation, normal arterial blood gases (ABGs) within client parameters. He will also demonstrate an absence of complications from mechanical ventilation.
• Patient will exhibit clear breath sounds.
• Patient won’t exhibit signs of respiratory distress or infection.
• Patient will incorporate mechanical ventilation into ADLs and family life.
• Patient will demonstrate adequate use of communication aids.
• Patient will remain free from complications.
• Caregiver will demonstrate the ease in using equipment and procedures to keep patients comfortable and free from infection.
• Caregiver will implement and maintain safety measures for using oxygen at home.
Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation Nursing Interventions
Which nursing intervention should the nurse include in the care plan for a client receiving impaired spontaneous ventilation?
|Prior intubation assessment:|
|Observe for changes in the level of consciousness.||Early signs of hypoxia include disorientation, irritability, and restlessness. While lethargy, stupor, and somnolence are considered late signs.|
|Assess the client’s respiratory rate, depth, and pattern, including the use of accessory muscles.||Changes in the respiratory rate and rhythm are early signs of possible respiratory distress. As moving air in and out of the lungs becomes more difficult, the breathing pattern changes to include the use of accessory muscles to increase chest excursions.|
|Assess the client’s heart rate and blood pressure.||Tachycardia may result from hypoxia; Increased blood pressure happens in the initial phases then followed by lowered blood pressure as the condition progresses.|
|Auscultate the lung for normal or adventitious breath sounds.||Adventitious breath sounds such as wheezes and crackles are an indication of respiratory difficulties. Quick assessment allows for early detection of deterioration or improvement.|
|Assess the skin color, examine the lips and nailbeds for cyanosis.||Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis) indicates an excessive concentration of deoxygenated blood and that breathing pattern is ineffective to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation.|
|Monitor oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry.||Pulse oximetry is useful in detecting early changes in oxygen. Oxygen saturation levels should be between 92% and 98% for an adult without any respiratory difficulties.|
|Monitor arterial blood gases (ABGs) as indicated.||Increasing Paco2 and decreasing PaO2 indicates respiratory failure. If the client’s condition begins to fail, the respiratory rate and depth decreases, and Paco2 begin to rise.|
|After intubation assessment:|
||Correct ET tube placement is important for effective mechanical ventilation.|
||Client discomfort may be secondary to incorrect ventilator settings that result in insufficient oxygenation. Once intubated and breathing on the mechanical ventilator, the client should be breathing easily and not “fighting or bucking” the ventilator.|
||The assessment ensures that settings are accurate and alarms are functional.|
|Therapeutic interventions prior to intubation:|
||An artificial airway is used to prevent the tongue from occluding the oropharynx.|
||This position promotes oxygenation via maximum chest expansion and is implemented during events of respiratory distress. Do not let the client slide down; this causes the abdomen to compress the diaphragm, which could cause respiratory change.|
||Deep breathing facilitates oxygenation. A deep cough is effective in clearing mucus out of the lungs.|
||Suctioning is needed for clients who are unable to remove secretions from the airway by coughing.|
|Preparation for endotracheal intubation:|
||Mechanical ventilators are classified according to the method by which they support ventilation. The two types are negative-pressure and positive-pressure ventilators (used most frequently).|
||Preparatory information can decrease anxiety and promote cooperation with intubation.|
|Prepare the following equipment:|
||Endotracheal tubes come in various sizes and shapes. Adult sizes range from 7 to 9 mm. Selection is based on the client’s size.|
||Blades and scopes facilitate the opening of the upper airway and visualization of the vocal cords for placement of oral ET tubes. A stylet makes the ET tube firmer and gives additional support to direction during intubation.|
||A syringe is used to inflate the balloon (cuff) after the ET tube is in position. Tape and benzoin are used to secure the ET tube.|
||These anesthetic agents suppress the gag reflex and promote general comfort.|
|Administer sedation as ordered.||Sedation facilitates comfort and ease of intubation.|
|Assist with intubation:|
||This position is necessary to promote the visualization of landmarks for accurate tube insertion.|
||Use of cricoid pressure to prevent passive regurgitation during rapid sequence intubation. It may also prevent passive regurgitation of gastric and oesophageal contents.|
||This provides assisted ventilation with 100% oxygen before intubation. Increasing oxygen tension in the alveoli may result in more oxygen diffusion into the capillaries.|
|Therapeutic interventions after intubation:|
||Correct placement is needed for effective mechanical ventilation and to prevent complications associated with malpositioning such as vomiting, hypoxia, gastric distention, lung trauma. The carbon dioxide detector is attached to the ET tube immediately after intubation to verify tracheal intubation. Other capnography devices that provide numerical measurements of end-tidal carbon dioxide (normal value is 35 to 45 mm Hg) and capnograms may also be used.|
||Stabilization is necessary before initiating mechanical ventilation.|
||Documentation provides a reference for determining possible tube displacement, usually 21 cm for women and 23 cm at the lips for men.|
||An oral airway and/or block prevents the client from biting down on the ET tube.|
||These restraints may prevent self-extubation of the ET tube. Although all clients do not require restraints to prevent extubation, many do.|
||Modes for ventilating (assist/control, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation), tidal volume, rate per minute, a fraction of oxygen in inspired gas (FIO2), pressure support, positive end-expiratory pressure, and the like must be preset and carefully evaluated for response.|
||Suction helps remove secretions. A Yankaeur suction device should be available. Suctioning procedures should not be done frequently but as needed only in order to lessen the risk for infection and airway trauma.|
||Abdominal distention may indicate gastric intubation and can also occur after cardiopulmonary resuscitation when the air is inadvertently blown or bagged into the esophagus, as well as the trachea. Suction prevents abdominal distention. Oral gastric suctioning may also reduce the risk for sinusitis.|
||These medications decrease the client’s work of breathing, decrease myocardial work, and may facilitate effective gas exchange.|
||Cuff pressure should be maintained at 20 to 30 mm Hg. Maintenance of low-pressure cuffs prevents many tracheal complications formerly associated with ET tubes. Notify the physician if the leak persists. The ET tube cuff may be defective, requiring the physician to change the tube.|
||The key is that the client receives oxygenation support at all times until mechanical ventilation is no longer required.|
Evaluations for Expected Outcomes
• Patient has clear breath sounds.
• Patient doesn’t exhibit respiratory distress or infection.
• Patient incorporates mechanical ventilation into daily life.
• Patient demonstrates the use of communication aids.
• Patient remains free from complications.
• Caregiver demonstrates the ease in using equipment and procedures to keep patients comfortable and free from infection.
• Caregiver implements and maintains safety measures for using oxygen at home.
• Assessment results, such as vital signs and breath sounds
• Checks of ventilator settings, alarms, and backup equipment and arterial blood gas analysis results
• Patient’s response to respiratory treatment
• Patient’s response to nursing interventions
• Patient teaching and patient’s and family members’ responses to teaching
• Evaluations for expected outcomes
PATIENT CARE PLAN:
NURSING DIAGNOSIS (in priority order) not a risk:
PATIENT CARE PLAN
Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation
- Respiratory failure (acute)
- Factors affecting metabolism
- Muscle exhaustion in the lungs
- The patient will have clear breath sounds and show no signs of respiratory distress or infection.
- The patient will incorporate mechanical ventilation into his or her daily activities and family life.
- The patient will use communication aids appropriately.
- There will be no complications for the patient.
NURSING INTERVENTION AND RATIONALE
Keep an eye out for changes in the state of consciousness.
Rationale: Disorientation, impatience, and restlessness are early indicators of hypoxia. Lethargy, stupor, and somnolence, on the other hand, are considered late indications.
Examine the client’s breathing rate, depth, and rhythm, as well as the utilization of accessory muscles.
Rationale: Early symptoms of respiratory distress include changes in breathing rate and rhythm. As it becomes increasingly difficult to get air into and out of the lungs, the breathing pattern shifts to involve the activation of accessory muscles to augment chest excursions.
Examine the client’s pulse and blood pressure.
Rationale: Hypoxia can cause tachycardia; initially, the condition causes an increase in blood pressure, which is followed by a decrease in blood pressure as the disease worsens.
Examine the lungs for typical or unusual breath sounds.
Rationale: Breathing noises that are unusual, such as wheezes and crackles, indicate respiratory problems. Early detection of deterioration or improvement is possible with a quick examination.
While on mechanical ventilation, assess the client’s satisfaction and capacity to comply.
Rationale: Improper ventilator settings that result in inadequate oxygenation may cause client discomfort. The client must be breathing smoothly on the mechanical ventilator after being intubated and should not be “battling or bucking” the ventilator.
Every hour, check the ventilator settings and the alarm system.
Rationale: The assessment confirms that the settings are correct and that the alerts are working.
Pulse oximetry can be used to check oxygen saturation.
Rationale: Pulse oximetry can help detect early changes in oxygen levels. For an adult with no respiratory problems, oxygen saturation levels should be between 92 percent and 98 percent.
Check for cyanosis in the skin tone, lips, and nailbeds.
Rationale: Cyanosis (bluish staining of the skin) shows that there is an excessive amount of deoxygenated blood in the body and that the breathing pattern is insufficient to maintain proper tissue oxygenation.
- The patient’s breathing is clear.
- The patient does not have respiratory distress or infection, and he or she uses mechanical ventilation on a daily basis.
- The patient shows that he or she is using communication tools.
- There are no complications for the patient.