Bronchitis, Bronchitis Nursing Intervention, Bronchiolitis and 5 Bronchiolitis Nursing Care Plans

Bronchitis, Bronchitis Nursing Intervention, Bronchiolitis and 5 Bronchiolitis Nursing Care Plans

The content in this article constitutes Bronchitis, Bronchitis Nursing Intervention, Bronchiolitis, and 5 Bronchiolitis Nursing Care Plans. It can be used to create and develop educational nursing care plans for bronchitis.

Bronchitis

Bronchitis

What is Bronchitis?

Bronchitis is characterized by the inflammation, infection or swelling of the lining of the bronchi or the airways in the lungs. The bronchial tubes carry oxygen to and out of the lungs. Symptoms include coughing up sputum, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort. Bronchitis may be either chronic or acute.

Acute bronchitis is a common kind of bronchitis caused by viral infections, such as cold or flu. Whereas, Chronic Bronchitis is an illness that is serious, chronic and it results from continuous irritation or inflammation of the bronchial tubes. Acute bronchitis, referred to as a chest cold, improves with no lasting effects within a week or ten days, even though the cough may linger for months.

When there are repeated bouts of bronchitis, this signifies Chronic bronchitis, and this requires medical intervention. Chronic bronchitis is one of those conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). You are recommended to get a nursing care plan for Chronic bronchitis in order to avoid any risks to your health.

What are the signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis or acute bronchitis?

  • Cough along with the generation of mucus or sputum, which is clear white or yellowish-grey or has a light green tinge in colour and may also sometimes have spots of blood.
  • Infection
  • Shortness of breath
  • Slight fever and chills
  • Abdominal distress

You may have symptoms like a headache or body aches in case you have got acute bronchitis. Generally, these symptoms generally improve in about a week, however, if you have a bad cough lingering for a few weeks, it could be a symptom of Chronic Bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by a cough that lasts for at least three months and keeps recurring with bouts for a long time. For those having chronic bronchitis, there would be periods of calm and no symptoms followed by periods when cough or other symptoms become worse.  There may be a possibility of having an infection and acute bronchitis as well, on top of the existing chronic bronchitis.

Why do some people have bronchitis?

Bronchitis is caused by the inflammation of the bronchial tubes, due to viruses, bacteria, or other irritants to the lining of the bronchioles.

  • Repeated irritation and damage to the airways and lung tissue causes chronic bronchitis.
  • Other frequent causes of chronic asthma, include smoking, long-term exposure to air pollution, fumes, and dust in the surroundings, and repeated episodes of acute bronchitis amongst other reasons.

care 24 provides nursing care plan for acute bronchitis for the patients for their care and well being.

What are the risk factors for Bronchitis?

  • Cigarette smoke – Individuals who smoke or who live with those that smoke is at greater risk of both acute as well as chronic bronchitis.
  • Reduced immunity – This may result due to acute illness, including cold, or by a chronic condition that compromises the immune system. Children, babies, and older adults have a higher risk for such exposure.
  • Exposure to irritants at the workplace – Your risk of developing bronchitis is higher if you operate around specific lung irritants, like grains or fabrics, or if you are vulnerable to chemical fumes.

Gastric reflux – Repeated bouts of acid reflux due to GERD may irritate your throat and make you prone to developing bronchitis.

To lower your risk of bronchitis, you must do the following

  • Avoid cigarette smoke – Cigarette smoke raises your risk of chronic bronchitis.
  • Get vaccinated – Most cases of acute hepatitis response from flu, a virus. Getting a flu vaccine helps protect you. You might need to think about.
  • Wash your hands – To lower your chance of getting a viral infection, wash your hands regularly and get in the habit of using alcohol-based hand sanitizers.
  • Wear a surgical mask – When you have COPD, you may want to use a face mask esp. in case you are exposed to fumes or dust, and if you are likely to be in a crowd or while travelling.

What are the remedies of chronic bronchitis?

Generally, the physicians recommend good rest and plenty of fluids. A bout of bronchitis is often self-resolving and disappears by itself. Drinking lots of fluids and letting the body rest, may allow symptoms to disappear faster.

Remedies may also include

  • A cough suppressant only if you are not pulling up mucus. In case you are getting mucus, it means you are clearing your airways and your doctor may probably not counsel you to take one.
  • Pain reliever
  • Sleeping near a source of humidity or in a steamy bath
  • Bronchodilators or inhaled medications that help open airways

Should Antibiotics be consumed?

Antibiotics are extremely fast acting drugs that treat bacterial diseases. However, acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection and antibiotics are ineffective on the virus.

You may obtain a prescription for antibiotics only if your physician believes the cause is bacteria.

If that’s the case, make sure you complete the course as specified and prescription by your physician  and get one of chronic bronchitis nursing interventions otherwise the disease could remain in your system even if you are feeling better and have therefore discontinued mediation. You need to be certain that all the bacteria are out of your system.

Other Medicines

A bout of bronchitis can make breathing harder if you have other respiratory issues.

Allergies, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can all narrow your airways. You will require an inhaler along with other remedies in case you have got one of those conditions together with bronchitis.

Make sure you inform your doctor all the medications.

If you are coughing non-stop due to bronchitis, you may search for whatever you can do, to make it stop. Apart from a cough suppressant, which may have side effects such as nausea, dizziness, or dry mouth, avoid all such things.

Things that Bother Lungs – Staying away from materials such as smoke, chemical fumes, dust, and air pollution would be your very best way to prevent and cure bronchitis. If you have trouble quitting and smoke, talk about what may work for you to your physician. Wear a mask and open windows when possible – should you work them around, for instance – if you cannot steer clear of the materials.

Get Plenty of Rest – The disease and cough which start with hepatitis may make you quite exhausted. Listen to your body and obtain as much rest as is possible, particularly, if a night cough keeps you awake, use an additional pillow to prop your head up and maintain mucus from settling at the back of your throat.

Drink Plenty of Fluids – Whenever you have bronchitis, it is very important to loosen the mucus in your chest so that you can cough it up and breathe more easily. The very best approach to make mucus more fluid is to drink loads of fluids such as water, diluted fruit juices, herbal tea, and clear soups. Aim for eight to 12 glasses per day. However, try to steer clear of alcohol and caffeine.

Gargle with Saltwater – This can eliminate a few of the mucus that irritates and coats your throat. Dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt in a glass of water. Spit out it after gargling. You can do this a few times each day to make your throat feel better.

Inhale Steam – This is another means to make mucus more fluid so that it can move out from your body. To get started, using a steaming bowl, boil water in a pot and put it into a large, heatproof bowl. Try making it not too hot, because that will irritate the lining on your nasal passages. Drape a towel over your head and lean over the bowl, creating a tent using the towel. Breathe the steam for about 10 minutes. You might also take a very hot shower or sit in a steamy bath.

Use a Humidifier – A cold- or – warm-mist humidifier in the bedroom releases moisture in the atmosphere while you sleep, and that will help to clear the mucus. Be certain that you clean your humidifier frequently in order to clean out germs and mould.

Use honey to ease – From ancient times, honey is used as a medicine. If you eat it or stir it into warm herbal tea, it can aid with the annoying cough that often includes influenza and also soothes a sore throat. But do not give honey to children younger than one-year-old since it can lead to infant botulism, a very serious sort of food poisoning.

Bronchitis Nursing Intervention

Bronchitis Nursing Intervention

  • Boost secretion via ambulation, coughing, and deep breathing.
  • Increase fluid intake to liquefy secretions and protect against dehydration brought by fever and tachypnea.
  • Encourage rest, avoidance of bronchial irritants, along with a healthy and light diet to ease healing.
  • Advise the patient to finish the entire course of antibiotics and explain the use of healthy foods on medicine absorption.
  • Caution the individual on utilizing over-the-counter cough suppressants, antihistamines, and decongestants, which might cause retention of and drying secretions. Cough preparations containing mucolytic guaifenesin are suitable.
  • Advise the individual that a dry cough may persist following aggravation of airways. Suggest avoiding surroundings that are dry and suggest the use of a humidifier. Encourage the patient to completely stops smoking.
  • Educate the individual to recognize and instantly report early symptoms of acute bronchitis.

Bronchiolitis vs. bronchitis

Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is an acute viral inflammation of the lower respiratory tract involving the bronchioles and alveoli. Accumulated thick mucus, exudate, and cellular debris and the mucosal edema from the inflammatory process obstruct the smaller airways (bronchioles). This causes a reduction in expiration, air trapping, and hyperinflation of the alveoli. The obstruction interferes with gas exchange, and in severe cases causes hypoxemia and hypercapnia, which can lead to respiratory acidosis. Children in a debilitated state who experience this disorder with other serious diseases are hospitalized.

5 Bronchiolitis Nursing Care Plans

What are the nursing care plans for bronchiolitis?

Nursing care planning goals for a child with bronchiolitis include maintenance of effective airway clearance, improved breathing pattern, relief of anxiety and fatigue, increased parental knowledge about the disease condition, and absence of complications.

Ineffective Airway Clearance

Nursing Diagnosis

May be related to

  • Tracheobronchial obstruction, secretions, infection

Possibly evidenced by

  • Diminished or absent breath sounds
  • Crackles, wheezes, rhonchi
  • Paroxysmal, nonproductive, and harsh, hacking cough
  • Change in rate and depth of respirations
  • Dyspnea and shallow respiratory excursion
  • Hyperresonance
  • Increased mucus and nasal discharge
  • Tachypnea
  • Fever

Desired Outcomes

  • Child will demonstrate effective coughing and clear breath sounds; is free of cyanosis and dyspnea.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess airway for patency. Maintaining patent airway is always the first priority, especially in cases like trauma, acute neurological decompensation, or cardiac arrest.
Assess respirations. Note quality, rate, pattern, depth, flaring of nostrils, dyspnea on exertion, evidence of splinting, use of accessory muscles, and position for breathing. A change in the usual respiration may mean respiratory compromise. An increase in respiratory rate and rhythm may be a compensatory response to airway obstruction.
Assess breath sounds by auscultation. Abnormal breath sounds can be heard as fluid and mucus accumulate. This may indicate airway is obstructed.
Assess cough (moist, dry, hacking, paroxysmal, brassy, or croupy): onset, duration, frequency, if it occurs at night, during day, or during activity; mucus production: when produced, amount, color (clear, yellow , green), consistency (thick, tenacious, frothy); ability to expectorate or if swallowing secretions, stuffy nose or nasal drainage. Coughing is a mechanism for clearing secretions. An ineffective cough compromises airway clearance and prevents mucus from being expelled. Respiratory muscle fatigue, severe bronchospasm, or thick and tenacious secretions are possible causes of ineffective cough.
Provide for periods of rest by organizing procedures and care and disturbing infant/child as little as possible in acute stages of illness. Prevents unnecessary energy expenditure resulting in fatigue.
Elevate head of bed at least 30° for child and hold infant and young child in lap or in an upright position with head on shoulder; older child may sit up and rest head on a pillow on overbed table. Upright position limits abdominal contents from pushing upward and inhibiting lung expansion. This position promotes better lung expansion and improved air exchange.
Encourage fluid intake at frequent intervals over 24-h time periods, specify amounts. Fluids help minimize mucosal drying and maximize ciliary action to move secretions.
Reposition on sides q 2h; position child in proper body alignment. Prevents accumulation and pooling of secretions.
Assist to perform deep breathing and coughing exercises in child when in a relaxed position for postural drainage unless procedures are contraindicated; use incentive spirometer in older child, blowing up balloon, blowing bubbles, blowing a pinwheel or blowing cotton balls across the table in younger child. Vibration loosens and dislodges secretions, and gravity drains the airways and lung segments through Promotes deeper breathing by enlarging tracheobronchial tree and initiating cough reflex to remove secretions.
Teach parents and possibly older child (specify) administration of medications via proper route with name and action of each drug: dosage; why given; frequency; time of day or night; side effects to report; how to administer in food—crushed, chewable, by measured dropper, or other recommended form; and method (nose drops, inhaler). Ensures compliance with correct drug dosage and other considerations for administrations for desired results, and what to do if side effects occur.

Ineffective Breathing Pattern

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Ineffective Breathing Pattern

May be related to

  • Increased work of breathing
  • Inflammatory process
  • Tracheobronchial obstruction

Possibly evidenced by

  • Cough
  • Nasal flaring
  • Dyspnea
  • Tachypnea
  • Shallow respiratory excursion
  • Suprasternal and subcostal retractions
  • Abnormal arterial blood gases (ABGs)

Desired Outcomes

  • Child will maintain effective breathing pattern, as evidenced by relaxed breathing at normal rate and depth and absence of dyspnea.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess respiratory status, a minimum of every 2–4 hours or more often as indicated for a decreasing respiratory rate and episodes of apnea. Changes in breathing pattern may occur quickly as the child’s energy reserves are depleted. Assessment and monitoring baseline reveal rate and quality of air exchange. Frequent assessment and monitoring provide objective evidence of changes in the quality of respiratory effort, enabling prompt and effective intervention.
Assess configuration of the chest by palpation; auscultate for breath sounds that indicate a movement restriction (absent or diminished, crackles or rhonchi). This is to detect decreased or adventitious breath sounds.
Note for changes in the level of consciousness. Restlessness, confusion, and/or irritability can be early indicators of insufficient oxygen to the brain.
Assess pulse rate and oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry. Pulse oximetry is a helpful tool to detect alterations in oxygenation initially; but, for CO2 levels, end-tidal CO2 monitoring or arterial blood gases (ABGs) would require being obtained.
Monitor arterial blood gases. Monitors oxygenation and ventilation status.
Position head of the bed up or place child in position of comfort on parent’s lap, if crying or struggling in crib or bed Position facilitates improved aeration and promotes a decrease in anxiety (especially in toddlers) and energy expenditure.
Encourage frequent rest periods and teach patient to pace activity. Extra activity can worsen shortness of breath. Ensure the patient rests between strenuous activities.
Assist and demonstrate proper deep breathing exercises. Promotes deep inspiration, which increases oxygenation and prevents atelectasis.
Maintain a clear airway by encouraging patient to mobilize own secretions with successful coughing. Facilitates adequate clearance of secretions.
Provide humidified oxygen via face mask, hood, or tent. Humidified oxygen loosens secretions and helps maintain oxygenation status and ease respiratory distress.

Anxiety

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Anxiety

May be related to

  • Change in the health status of the infant or small child
  • Threat of or actual hospitalization of infant/small child

Possibly evidenced by

  • Increased apprehension that condition might worsen
  • Expressed concern and worry about impending hospitalization
  • Need for treatment such as mist tent, IV therapy while hospitalized

Desired Outcomes

  • Child will experience decreased anxiety and will appear relaxed.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess source and level of anxiety, how anxiety is manifested, and need for information that will relieve anxiety. Provides information about anxiety level and the need for interventions to relieve it; sources of anxiety may include fear and uncertainty about treatment and recovery, guilt for the presence of illness, possible loss of parental role, and loss of
responsibility if hospitalized.
Communicate openly with parents and answer questions calmly and honestly. Promotes a calm and supportive environment.
Allow expression of concerns and opportunity to ask questions about the condition and recovery of ill infant/small child. Provides an opportunity to vent feelings, and to secure information needed to reduce anxiety.
Encourage parents to remain calm and involved in care and decision-making regarding infant/small child noting any improvement that results. Promotes constant monitoring of infant/small child for improvement or worsening of symptoms.
Encourage parents to stay with infant/ small child or allow open visitation and telephoning, have parents assist in care (holding, feeding, diapering) and suggest routines and methods of treatment. Allows parents to care for and support infant/small child; absence and wondering about the condition of infant/small child may increase anxiety.
Teach parents about the disease process and physical effects and symptoms of
the disease.
Provides information to relieve anxiety by informing parents of what to expect.
Explain the reason for each procedure or
type of therapy, effects of any diagnostic tests to parents.
Prevents anxiety by reducing the fear of unknown.
Clarify any misinformation and answer
questions in lay terms when parents
are able to listen, give the same explanation other staff and/or physician gave regarding disease process and transmission.
Prevents unnecessary anxiety resulting from inaccurate knowledge or beliefs, or inconsistencies in information.

Fatigue

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Fatigue

May be related to

  • Respiratory effort

Possibly evidenced by

  • Lethargy or listlessness
  • Emotional liability or irritability
  • Exhausted appearance
  • Inability to eat, limpness

Desired Outcomes

  • Infant/child will be able to eat, drink, and play quietly.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess for extreme weakness and fatigue; ability to rest, sleep, and amount; movement in bed. Provides information to determine effects of dyspnea and work of breathing over a period of time, which becomes exhaustive and depletes infant/small child energy reserves and ability to rest, eat, drink.
Schedule and provide rest periods in a
quiet, comfortable environment
(temperature and humidity).
Promotes adequate rest and reduces stimuli in order to decrease risk for fatigue.
Disturb infant/small child only when necessary, perform all care at one time instead of spreading over a long period of time. Conserves energy and prevents interruptions in rest.
Encourage parents to use measures to
prevent fatigue in infant/small child (holding and/or rocking, feeding in small amounts, playing with the child, offering diversions such as TV, toys).
Provides support to infant/small child and conserves energy.
Allow quiet play with a familiar toy while
maintaining bed rest.
Rest decreases fatigue and respiratory distress; quiet play prevents excessive activity, that depletes energy and
increases respiration.
Teach parents to pick up an infant/small child if crying longer than 1 to 2 minutes. Prevents fatigue, as prolonged crying is exhaustive.
Assist parents to develop a plan to provide feeding, bathing, changing diaper around rest periods. Prevents interruption in rest and sleep.

Deficient Knowledge

Nursing Diagnosis

May be related to

  • Lack of information about respiratory syncytial virus

Possibly evidenced by

  • Parents verbalize lack of understanding about RSV

Desired Outcomes

  • Parents will verbalize understanding of the condition, methods of prevention and treatment of RSV.
Nursing Interventions Rationale
Assess existing knowledge of disease
prevention, transmission, and treatment.
Provides a baseline for the type of information needed to prevent infection transmission to the child.
Teach that the virus is transmitted by
direct and indirect contact via the nose and eyes and that hands should be kept away from these areas.
Explains that kissing and cuddling infant/small child, and fomites that are on hard, smooth surfaces are sources of contact with the virus.
Teach parents about the signs and
symptoms of respiratory distress and
infection, including fever, dyspnea,
tachypnea, and expectoration of
yellow/green sputum.
Encourages parents to seek prompt medical attention, as needed.
Teach of potential for spread of the virus
to other family members and need for segregation of infant/small child from others.
Explains that virus is easily transmitted, with an incidence as high as half of the family members acquiring viral infections.
Suggest that plastic goggles may be worn
when caring for infant/small child.
Prevents risk of contact with the virus via the eyes.
Teach good handwashing technique for child and family members. Prevents transmission by the hands, which are the main sources of contamination and
carriers of organisms to the face area.
Encourage parents to provide good
nutrition and hydration, emphasizing a high-calorie balanced diet and increased fluids (specify amounts).
Promotes liquification of secretions and replaces calories used to fight infection, thereby boosting the child’s own natural
body defense.
Teach parents about the administration of
medications prescribed.
Improves consistency of medication administration and the recognition of adverse side effects.
If hospitalized, adhere to infection control policies for clients with RSV. Protects from exposure to secretions and transmission of the virus to other patients.
Encourage and teach parents to provide
care for the hospitalized child at a level they are comfortable with and within
the constraints of necessary treatments. Teach parents about the prophylactic drugs (if ordered) of RespiGam or Synagis (specify). 

  • These drugs are given to high-risk infants only during the RSV
    season to prevent RSV infection of
    compromised infants.
  • RespiGam is RSV immune globulin that
    is administered once a month during
    RSV season by IV infusion lasting
    several hours. The drug interferes
    with vaccine effectiveness.
  • Synagis is a synthetic monoclonal
    antibody that is administered IM
    once a month during RSV season. The
    drug does not interfere with
    vaccines. It is very expensive.
Promotes parental identity and control; may lessen anxiety and stress.
Instruct parents regarding the drug
Ribavirin if used during hospitalization: 

  • Side effects
  • Type and purposes of isolation, including the use of masks, gloves, and/or gowns as applicable.
  • Precautions utilized for parents, staff, and visitors, including information regarding potential risks of environmental exposure; advise pregnant women not to directly care for the child; decrease potential exposure by temporarily stopping the aerosols when tent/hood is opened and administer the drug in well-ventilated rooms (at least 6 air exchanges per hour)
  • Strict handwashing before and after
    leaving the child’s room)
Promotes understanding which may lessen anxiety; prevents accidental exposures to the drug.
Teach family members about the appropriate disposal of soiled tissues, and so forth. Prevent the transmission of the disease.
Instruct parents on the importance of
limiting the number of visitors and screening them for a recent illness.
Prevent transmission of the disease to others; prevent further complications in the child with RSV.

Bronchitis, Bronchitis Nursing Intervention, Bronchiolitis and 5 Bronchiolitis Nursing Care Plans

 

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