Care Needs for Patient with Dementia

Care Needs for Patient with Dementia

This guide is about care needs for patient with dementia. Use it to create excellent interventions for patients suffering from dementia.

Introduction to Care Needs for Patient with Dementia Guide

In this evaluation, I’ll discuss Dementia, including what it is and how it affects people. I’m going to look in-depth at what a person with dementia requires in terms of their condition.

What is dementia?

‘A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning’

Dementia is a term used to describe a range of systems linked to a deterioration in memory and cognitive abilities severe enough to affect a person’s daily activities. There are around 400 kinds of dementia, with Alzheimer’s accounting for 60-80% of cases. Vascular dementia, which develops after a stroke, and Lewy Body Dementia are two of the more frequent varieties.

Dementia affects 85-90 per cent of nursing home residents. The loss of ‘familiar’ things like family names and events has an influence on the individual suffering from dementia. Dementia is not a natural component of growing older; it is a disease that should not be mistaken with the individual who has it. Everyone is affected differently by dementia, and no two instances are the same.

In Ireland, 11 persons are diagnosed with dementia every day; we now have 55,000 dementia patients, with the number expected to climb to 113,000 by 2036. Every three seconds, someone in the globe is diagnosed with dementia; in 2017, an estimated 50 million individuals were diagnosed with dementia, with the number expected to climb to 75 million by 2030.

Professor Tom Kitwood, who invented PCC (person-centred care) and was a pioneer in the area of dementia, owes a great deal to us. He questioned the previous paradigm of care and sought to understand the perspective of the person suffering from dementia. His goal was for his pupils to develop their own sentiments, emotions, and intuitive abilities so that they could supplement their own resources in their job and daily life.

Innovations like these have played a significant part in improving dementia patient care throughout the globe, allowing us to better understand ourselves and, more crucially, the individuals who suffer from dementia, and how we may make their life a little easier.

What are the physiological and psychological changes that occur for the older person with Dementia?

Physiological changes

People with dementia may have a variety of physiological changes, including forgetting simple tasks such as dressing or the proper sequence in which to dress. This is known as dressing apraxia. Eating habits may also be altered; a person may overeat, resulting in obesity, or undereat, resulting in malnutrition; they may forget to eat, or they may have eaten and forgotten to eat. Sleeping patterns might be disrupted if a person confuses night with day.

It is not weakening of the afflicted portions that cause the individual to jerk or move in an uncoordinated manner. The inability to identify the written word, particularly common words, names, and numerals, is known as anomnia. Agnosia is the failure to comprehend sensory information; similar to Anomnia, it is the unrecognition of familiar items, faces, and locations; an example would be putting salt in their tea instead of sugar. Because of apraxia and a loss of spatial awareness, certain dementia patients are prone to slips, stumbles, and falls.

Psychological changes

Memory loss, forgetting family members’ names and forgetting family past events are perhaps the most known psychological alterations to the individual suffering from dementia’s psychological impacts. Dementia patients may also have difficulty locating themselves; they may be confused at home or get disoriented in care, not knowing where they are. Misplacing items, especially familiar goods, maybe a problem for someone with dementia. For example, putting shampoo in the fridge and not remembering where familiar objects were left or forgetting where they placed the keys to the vehicle, which are usually kept in one location.

Dementia may cause a person to become reclusive and apathetic, lose interest in the people around them, and, most significantly, lose their identity. A person with dementia will often ask the same questions again and tell the same tale over and over. Some people become paranoid and suspicious, believing that their caregiver or a family member is spying on them or accusing their spouse or husband of having an affair.

Maintaining a smooth conversation might be difficult for certain dementia patients, leading to them becoming increasingly reclusive and lonely. Hallucinations may occur in certain individuals, some of which are scary, while others include everyday people, items, or circumstances from the past, and are most often encountered in the latter stages of Alzheimer’s disease.

Exploration of Dementia Patient Needs

What is Abrahams Maslow’s hierarchy of needs?

Abraham Harold Maslow developed the Maslow hierarchy of needs in 1943 in his important work “A Theory of Human Motivation.” It’s a study of healthy persons and their wants, such as physiological and safety needs. It’s organized in a pyramid form, with physiological needs at the bottom, safety needs, love/belonging requirements, esteem needs, and self-actualization at the top. A person living in a war-torn nation, for example, would be more concerned with their safety than with self-actualization.

What are the physical needs of an older person with dementia?

When it comes to a person’s physical needs, the most important thing is to keep them involved, to make them feel empowered and responsible; this will give them feelings of confidence and that they matter; simply allowing them to put on their own clothes, asking them what they would like to eat, and asking them what their day’s wishes are will make them feel wanted and important. If a person has incontinence, a regular toileting routine is necessary to promote comfort, eliminate humiliation, prevent skin irritation and breakdown, and lower the risk of urinary tract infection in women.

The extent to which a person’s dementia has progressed will determine their capacity to accomplish everyday tasks and the level of support they need. If the dementia is severe, the individual may require help eating, and their food may need to be pureed and their drinks thickened. If they are unable to communicate verbally, we can use pictures or signboards to bridge the gap.

To build a relationship with the person, we must make eye contact, watch facial expressions, and observe their body language. If they are unable to communicate verbally, we can bridge the gap using pictures or signboards. It is critical to speak clearly, break down instructions, be patient, ask brief questions, and check for comprehension to prevent irritating and confusing the individual.

A person with severe dementia will need help with cleanliness. We may learn whether they prefer a shower or a bath, as well as if they prefer a wet or dry shave. If the individual is having trouble dressing, we may need to spread the clothing out on the bed for them or hold them up for them to take.

Going to the bathroom is a very common issue as dementia progresses; having a good routine in place will help prevent issues like urinary tract infections, skin breakdown, and irritation; if the person soils their bedsheets, they should be changed, the person washed, and their clothes put in the laundry; this will make the person feel fresh, clean, and confident.

If the person has apraxia, they will need assistive devices such as glasses, a walking frame, and non-slip footwear, which should be kept near the person at all times to avoid unintentional slips, trips, and falls. If at all feasible, the individual should engage in some kind of activity; this will help them feel connected, minimize loneliness, and preserve muscle mass and joint flexibility.

Avoiding disruptions to their routine and leaving dishes and glasses in the same locations helps the person with dementia to feel more at ease. Putting images on doors and cabinets will make it easier for kids to find what they need and reduce the likelihood of mishaps.

If a person exhibits indicators of weight loss or gain, they should be sent to a dietitian or nutritionist, who will devise a plan based on the individual’s dietary requirements, which will be closely monitored and the person’s weight to determine their success.

It is best to avoid sleeping during the day in order to maintain normal sleep patterns at night. Drinking fluids after 6 p.m. is not encouraged since the individual has to be active throughout the day.

A speech therapist or a speech and language therapist should be consulted if a person exhibits indications of aphasia or anomnia. They’ll figure out whether the problem is with speech or communication. If a person has agnosia, they will need help and reminding to use common objects such as salt, sugar, toothpaste, and silverware, since they often forget how to use them.

What are the psychological/intellectual needs of an older person with dementia?

Reading, Sudoku, jigsaws, card games, and word searches are advised in the early stages of dementia to keep the brain engaged, maintain memory, and keep the brain active. As the individual’s health worsens, memory aides will become necessary. However, communicating in writing form in clear, written directions may enable the person to work independently for as long as feasible. In this case, a message board is a useful tool; small reminders and messages help them retain some skills.

The individual may keep engaged in their active daily tasks by communicating in clear, short phrases, pointing and utilizing hand gestures, and providing advice. Maintaining the same daily routines and structure will aid in the retention of abilities and the prevention of disinterest. Labelling cupboards, huge clocks, and large calendars will make it simpler for the individual to locate what they need, as well as assist them to keep oriented and maintain cognitive function.

What are the social and emotional needs of an older person with dementia?

It is critical that those around a person diagnosed with dementia are supportive and understanding. It can also be upsetting for family members, but they should try to be flexible and sensitive in order to cope with their own emotions. Each person diagnosed with dementia is a unique individual with their own set of emotions, sense of identity, and personal history.

Care Needs for Patient with Dementia
social and emotional needs of an older person with dementia

We should always try to encourage them to keep their sense of self, support them in their faith, ask them about their likes and dislikes, and gather as much information as we can about them so we can understand and support them to the best of our ability. Putting ourselves in their position and trying to envision what it must be like can increase our empathy.

For as long as feasible, the individual should be active in their care; this will give them a feeling of ownership and help them keep their identity. Asking them for their thoughts and preferences is crucial, as is ensuring that the activities that need to be completed are ‘done with the client’ rather than ‘done to the client.’ This makes the person feel included, valued and helps them maintain a feeling of self-worth. The more a person diagnosed with dementia understands how the diagnosis will impact them, as well as the resources and support that are available to them, the less anxious and fearful they will become.

Finding out how they feel, what their concerns are, their future plans, and what kind of care they would like is critical. Listening to the person and validating their concerns is important. They should be allowed to talk openly and freely, which should help relieve the agitation, anxiety, and frustration they are experiencing.

As the person’s dementia grows, they will be unable to communicate with us; as caregivers, we will need to ‘create a bridge to connect to them.’ If the person is displaying challenging behaviour, we must try to figure out why. Because they are unable to communicate with us, they may try to communicate in a different way, which may appear challenging, but the onus is on the caregiver to figure out what they need help with. We must remember that we are dealing with an adult who should be treated with respect at all times, never contradicting, and never talking down to them.

Dementia patients, like all humans, want a feeling of belonging, a sense of connection to their family and the people around them. We can assist them in this by keeping them busy and engaged in various activities and social interactions. The family may be there at mealtimes, and if the individual is able to be taken out for exercise, they can be brought out. Encouragement and assistance provide stimulation, reduce isolation, preserve social skills, and encourage participation for the individual.

We should be able to see what hobbies, pastimes, and interests the person has by reading the person’s care plan; from there, we can put together activities that will be stimulating and meaningful to the person, preventing apathy, boredom, and a sense of purpose, as well as reducing challenging behaviour through a positive diversion. People can connect to and benefit from activities such as recollection, music, pet and doll therapy, sudoku, puzzles, painting, baking, card games, bingo, and flower arranging.

The person’s environment is extremely important; the longer a person can be kept at home and in their community, the more connected they will feel, as well as a sense of security and familiarity. Support services like my homecare are among the many supports and services that are now available to help people stay at home longer. i.e. provide a service that will train and support home care staff to assist the individual with any requirements they may have at home.

The individual should be kept informed about their care, and if they are in a nursing home, their room should be arranged to help them feel more at ease, and their family should be included. Personal items such as decorations, photos, and pillows should be included in the room to assist them in settling in and feeling at ease. If special occasions happen, the person should be aided in dressing up, and they should be encouraged in taking pleasure in their appearance on a daily basis. This will give them a feeling of self-esteem and help build a good self-image.

Conclusion

In this evaluation, I learned a lot about dementia and how it affects people with dementia socially, emotionally, academically, and physically. I’ve also learned what kind of support and assistance they require. I believe the government should spend more in institutions like Bruff in Co Limerick, as well as more dementia education for the general public since I didn’t know much about dementia before starting this exam and course.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is dementia exactly?

 Dementia
Care Needs for Patient with Dementia

‘A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning’

Dementia is a term used to describe a range of systems linked to a deterioration in memory and cognitive abilities severe enough to affect a person’s daily activities. There are around 400 kinds of dementia, with Alzheimer’s accounting for 60-80% of cases. Vascular dementia, which develops after a stroke, and Lewy Body Dementia are two of the more frequent varieties.

2. What are the physiological changes that occur for the older person with dementia?

People with dementia may have a variety of physiological changes, including forgetting simple tasks such as dressing or the proper sequence in which to dress. This is known as dressing apraxia. Eating habits may also be altered; a person may overeat, resulting in obesity, or undereat, resulting in malnutrition; they may forget to eat, or they may have eaten and forgotten to eat. Sleeping patterns might be disrupted if a person confuses night with day.

3. What are the needs of a patient with dementia?

  • physical needs

When it comes to a person’s physical needs, the most important thing is to keep them involved, to make them feel empowered and responsible; this will give them feelings of confidence and that they matter; simply allowing them to put on their own clothes, asking them what they would like to eat, and asking them what their day’s wishes are will make them feel wanted and important.

  • psychological/intellectual needs

Reading, Sudoku, jigsaws, card games, and word searches are advised in the early stages of dementia to keep the brain engaged, maintain memory, and keep the brain active. As the individual’s health worsens, memory aides will become necessary.

  • social and emotional needs

It is critical that those around a person diagnosed with dementia are supportive and understanding. It can also be upsetting for family members, but they should try to be flexible and sensitive in order to cope with their own emotions. Each person diagnosed with dementia is a unique individual with their own set of emotions, sense of identity, and personal history.

Care Needs for Patient with Dementia

 

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