Causes and Effects of Obesity; Causes and Risk Factors of Obesity, Prevention of Obesity, and Treatment of Obesity.

Causes and Effects of Obesity

This essay is about the causes and effects of obesity. Study it to gain insights that you can apply when developing essays around the topic.

Introduction to Causes and Effects of Obesity Essay

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how critical it is to be informed on the causes and consequences of obesity. It will explain how to recognize the early indicators of obesity and recognize the symptoms in oneself or others. Obesity has a variety of reasons, all of which must be understood in order to avoid the condition from disrupting one’s life.

Obesity may have a negative impact on one’s social, psychological, health, and overall well-being. Obesity is a deadly condition that kills people all throughout the globe, not just in America. Obese persons face several challenges in life. Some persons who are fat are unable to get health insurance, and they earn less money on average than those who are not obese.

Obesity prevention in society may save many lives all over the globe. Obesity may be prevented by physical education, appropriate eating habits, and frequent exercise. The educational system in America needs to play a bigger role in promoting health and reducing obesity, but parents are the most important persons in a child’s life when it comes to preventing obesity. Parents have an important role in their children’s lives; they must control what their children consume and engage in on a daily basis. Obesity prevention is a continuous process and a way of life, not a one-day task. Obesity

Obesity is a major concern in our society, and it is one of the fastest-growing disorders among children, adolescents, and adults. Obesity has different classifications and may be interpreted in a variety of ways. Obesity has various indications and symptoms, giving physicians and parents time to intervene before the condition becomes deadly. Obesity may be caused by a variety of factors in children, teenagers, and adults, and the consequences can be fatal. People must begin to recognize signals and take action for the sake of a better, healthier, and more normal existence for themselves and their children.

Epidemiology of Childhood Obesity

What is the epidemiology of childhood obesity?

Obesity is an increasing issue in our society, and it may be anticipated in certain circumstances in infancy. Obesity-related tendencies in babies have been discovered. Infants who develop quicker than their peers have a higher chance of becoming fat than those who do not. Fast-growing children are more likely to be overweight later in life, whether in terms of height or weight increase.

There is no conclusive proof that faster-growing newborns become fat, although they do consume more food. A child’s hunger controls his or her growth, and nutritional consumption is a major risk factor for obesity. Fat children are more likely to become obese adults as they get older, according to research. Fat children are 25-80 percent more likely to become obese adults, according to studies (Lissau, 2007).

Definition of Obesity

What is obesity?

Obesity is a dangerous condition that may be avoided, but it will take a lot of effort from the whole family. Obesity in children is characterized as having a BMI equal to or more than the 85th percentile for their age and gender (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Heights 2008).

Obesity is defined as a discrepancy between the amount of energy expended and the amount of energy consumed by the body. Obesity and being overweight are often misunderstood in today’s culture. Overweight is defined as a body mass index of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher.

Obesity and being overweight have just one thing in common: both may be harmful to one’s health. When you consume more calories than your body requires over a period of time, you acquire weight. If you consume more calories than your body requires, the calories you don’t use will be stored as fat.

Childhood obesity occurs in three stages: late fetal development with overweight at birth, the rebound phase between the ages of five and six, and adolescence. (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Heights; Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Heights; Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Obesity must be caught early in these phases, or it will become more difficult.

Causes and Risk Factors of Obesity

Obesity affects children all around the globe for a variety of reasons. Obesity in children is caused by three factors: diet, physical activity, and the psychosocial environment of the family. Obesity may be caused by early neonatal weight increase. Obesity in children and adults is linked to this (Cole 2007). During smoking while pregnancy lowers an infant’s birth weight, it increases post-natal weight gain, which is a cause of obesity. 2007 (Cole). When a youngster accumulates a lot of weight at a young age, it’s a warning that they’ll become fat rather than gain weight gradually.

Watching television, having fat parents, and having a high birth weight all raise the risk of obesity, according to a study published in Acta Paediatrica (Elanson-Albertsson & Zetterstrom, 2005). Most of the time, it is the parents of the kid who are to blame for the youngster’s obesity. The most powerful influence in childhood obesity is the parents, and both parents are equally effective. The lifestyle that a parent provides for their child has a significant impact on how they will grow up. Obesity is more frequent in children whose parents do not encourage exercise and physical activity.

Causes

What are the causes of obesity?

Eating Habits

Obesity in children is mostly determined by their eating habits. Obesity is more likely if the parent does not regulate what they eat and how much they consume. When youngsters are hungry, they are more likely to pick junk food than a nutritious snack if their parents purchase a lot of junk food for the home. Children with fat parents are twenty-five to thirty percent more likely to become obese themselves. Children who grow up in a setting where unhealthy eating habits are encouraged are 33% more likely to become fat as teens (Cole 2007).

Emotions may influence eating patterns in addition to parental influences. As a teenager, you may encounter a variety of scenarios in your life, including new experiences or changes. Especially when a teenager is going through puberty, their changes and experiences might produce a significant shift in emotions. Some kids binge eat because they are upset, irritated, or just bored.

Adolescents suffering from depression have a higher chance of developing and becoming fat. Women are more emotional than males, and as teens, they are exposed to a variety of new situations that might trigger these feelings. According to research, ladies aged six to twelve are now three times as fat as they were thirty years ago.

Dieting and physical exercise are two important elements to consider while reducing the risk of obesity. These assist individuals live a healthy lifestyle by balancing each other’s energies. Breastfeeding is one technique to prevent children from obesity. Obesity is more likely in a newborn who is given formula.

“There are two possible explanations for contemporary obesity trends: appetite programming has altered, and appetite in certain youngsters is up regulated. And, although appetite programming remains unaltered, hungry youngsters are becoming overweight as a result of the obesogenic environment.” (Cole, page. 3 in 2006).

Limited Physical Activity

The San Jose research focused on reducing time spent in front of the television and increasing physical activity in children, with results showing a drop in obesity and the likelihood of obesity in youngsters. Sugar and fizzy beverage consumption reduced as youngsters watched less television. When the kids were watching television, they ate more fruits and vegetables throughout the day.

The youngsters that were examined exhibited a shift in their opinions as well. The youngsters seemed to be happier and more inclined to participate in physical activities in their daily lives. They also saw an improvement in their social life, as they were more willing to make new acquaintances and found it simpler to extend their existing friendship networks. (2007, Lissau)

In 1989, Mossberg did a research with a group of obese youngsters. Mossberg followed up with those youngsters after forty years and discovered that many of them were still fat. Mossberg also discovered that these people consumed a typical amount of food, implying that approaches for preventing fat and overweight should begin at an early age. It is considerably more difficult to decrease obesity in adults than it is to begin when youngsters show the first indications of obesity.

Environmental Factors

Environmental factors are also a major contributor to obesity. In today’s society, the environment has a significant influence on people’s lives, particularly among teens. Technology has gone a long way in the contemporary world, and children and teens are more reliant on it to keep them engaged. This might endanger their health.

Today’s teenagers spend much more time engaging with technology than is healthy. Video games, television, movies, and the internet are all examples of sedentary activities. It has been shown that children who watch television and videos have a higher BMI. The energy balance of a person decreases energy expenditure, lowers resting metabolic rate, and increases energy intake by watching television and playing video games.

Furthermore, many individuals eat while watching television and do not engage in any physical exercise to burn off the calories they consume. This permits the meal to sit and convert to fat, perhaps raising the risk of obesity. Many television advertisements promote fast food and restaurants, making it more probable for people to purchase these meals rather than prepare a nutritious dinner (Nowicka 2007).

Obesity, smoking, poor fitness, and high cholesterol have all been related to watching television in adulthood. Obesity may not be prevented only by reducing television consumption and increasing physical exercise. Gender, age, ethnicity, and BMI are all factors that influence sedentary behavior in different ways.

In addition, most children and teens eat out at fast-food restaurants more often than they should. As a consequence, individuals have less control over the amount of fat, sugar, and salt in the meals they consume. Fast food joints are now staying open later than they used to. These eateries remain open late, which caters to the culinary desires that teens may have at any time of day. For a better value, some fast food establishments also advocate super-sizing your meals, which adds additional needless calories while also saving money.

Children today see money as a significant aspect of their lives, so if it looks like supersizing a meal would save them money, they will believe it is a better bargain, even if it is ultimately damaging to their health. Fast food restaurants are a popular alternative for families who are too busy to sit down and have a home-cooked dinner. Instead, they stop and grab something fast. With such a hectic schedule, the children’s eating habits shift from what they were before they received their driver’s license or were more engaged.

Psychological Complications

Hilde Bruch was one of the first to point out that obesity was more than simply a matter of weight and BMI. It has an impact on many psychological elements of a person’s life, including mental health, psychiatric illnesses, social maladjustment, and familial disputes and stress (Elanson-Albertsson & Zetterstrom, 2005). Teenagers are especially affected by the psychological effects of fat.

Teenagers value maintaining a physical look, athletic abilities, and being accepted for what they wear, according to research (Lissau, 2007). Fat people are known to hang around with other obese people. Obese persons have also been shown to earn less money than “thin” or non-obese ones. They have weaker self-esteem and find it more difficult to form connections with others (Lissau).

In today’s world, young adolescent females are fascinated with their appearance. This fixation might stem from a variety of causes. Because each individual has unique characteristics that define who they are, teen girls may face peer pressure concerning their physical appearance. People are often envious of others at school since there is always someone they wish they looked like.

When it comes to the way they present themselves, girls become very competitive, and it can be difficult if they believe someone has a better body. Not only does peer pressure contribute to an obsession with physical appearance, but celebrities they see on television or in movies also have an impact. These ladies in the media are depicted as idealized versions of themselves.

In the United States, the number of obese adolescent females is almost twice that of fat adolescent males. Obesity affects more than one-third of women, according to studies. Boys spend more time watching television and playing video games while girls spend more time chatting on the phone and listening to music. At all ages, boys engage in greater physical exercise than girls. Reduced sedentary behavior in youngsters may be just as helpful as increased physical activity in an individual (Nowicka, 2007).

Risk Factors

What are the risk factors of obesity?

15.5 percent of teens in the United States are overweight. As an adult, being overweight as a teenager can lead to three diseases: type two diabetes, sleep apnea, and heart attack. Although heart attacks are less frequent than the other two, they are nevertheless hazardous.

Type II Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the initial illness. This is a metabolic disorder that occurs when a person consumes sugar, which is the body’s primary fuel source. When a person has type 2 diabetes, maintaining a normal glucose level is quite challenging. It’s possible that if this condition isn’t treated properly, it’ll kill you. There is currently no cure for type 2 diabetes, but there are a number of things that may be done to assist manage it.

A person’s daily routine may be improved by eating healthier meals and engaging in some kind of exercise. It’s ideal to get this under control when you’re still a teenager, since it’s simpler to modify a person’s lifestyle as a teenager, and it’ll be more beneficial in the long run. A sickness has the potential to be very destructive to a person in the future.

Sleep Apnea

Another ailment that poses a significant danger in a person’s life is sleep apnea, which may lead to early mortality as a result of obesity. Sleep apnea is a dangerous respiratory disease that causes sleepiness during the day and causes a person to cease breathing for brief periods of time while sleeping. Obesity also raises blood pressure, which causes the heart to work harder and weakens the heart muscle as a result of the increased workload. This causes the blood vessels to harden, increasing the risk of a blood clot and increasing the risk of a stroke or heart attack.

Prevention of Obesity

How can obesity be prevented?

The emphasis of physical education in school environments

When it comes to obesity prevention, the school environment is a great place to start. Healthy eating has a low priority in educational systems, particularly in the United States. Food and healthy meal support are lacking in schools, and teachers are unmotivated to add extra activities and nutrition lectures. There is very little oversight of what students eat. Vending machines may be found at almost every school in the United States. (2007, Lissau) The removal of vending machines will assist to reduce the consumption of junk food and fizzy beverages.

Obesity should be prevented in schools by bringing activities to the youngsters and making them mandatory. The only time students are not seated in school is during recess or physical education. A physical education lesson usually lasts less than an hour and occurs just a few times each week. Each week, the duration of the breaks should be increased, as well as the number of times they occur. Furthermore, many kids attend after-school daycare facilities, and increasing physical activity during after-school activities might reduce the risk of obesity (Lissau).

Physical exercise has a significant influence on body composition and metabolism, making it an important therapy and obesity prevention tool. It boosts energy expenditure, preserves lean body mass, and boosts mobilization while also burning fat. Physical exercise provides a number of additional advantages.

Physical exercise is required for appropriate growth, cardiopulmonary endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, motor skills, and agility. Walking, jumping, and weight lifting are all beneficial to bone development. Physical exercise has not only been demonstrated to be beneficial to children and adolescents. It does, however, have significant drawbacks. Changes in energy expenditure or intake may occur at important points in a child’s or adolescent’s growth, leading to an energy imbalance.

Male and female, ethnic groupings, active and inactive people may all benefit from physical exercise in various ways. Individuals will be affected in various ways. The World Health Organization advises thirty minutes of moderate physical exercise every day. Moderate physical activity is defined as any activity that consumes three to six times the amount of energy required to maintain a resting condition ( Nowicka, 2006).

The World Health Organization advises an extra twenty minutes of strenuous physical exercise at least three times a week for children and adolescents. More than six METs are required for vigorous physical exercise, such as jogging or running at least 8.0 km per hour (Nowicka, 2006). An hour of moderate and physical exercise is recommended by Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, however, it may be spread out throughout the day (Nowicka).

The National Weight Registry undertook a research to see how keeping a balanced diet and getting enough exercise impacts overweight and obese adults. They looked at weight reduction therapies that worked and those that didn’t. The primary weight maintainers in adults and children are food intake and physical activity levels. Adults can maintain their weight more easily by engaging in more physical activity than children.

In youngsters, a low-fat diet is more effective than physical exercise in maintaining weight. The research also revealed that the more weight dropped, the heavier and younger the person was. In terms of long-term weight management, boys likewise exhibited a propensity to shed more weight than girls.

Obesity may be prevented if the early indicators of the condition are recognized. Obesity management is based on lifestyles that prioritize physical exercise and behavior. Physical exercise is an important part of treating and preventing obesity, and it should be a priority for children and adolescents. Obesity may also be reduced by sleeping longer, having more siblings, and having parents with a high level of education ( Elanson-Albertsson & Zetterstrom, 2005).

It is important to engage in a range of activities on a daily basis. Only particular muscles in the body will be used if you only do one kind of exercise every day. Resistance training has become a popular kind of exercise for obese people. Musculoskeletal fitness may be improved through resistance exercise.

Working diverse muscles is a significant approach to reducing body fat and minimizing the quantity of obesity around the globe. Physical education programs may be the sole source of exercise for some youngsters throughout the day. Teachers of physical education are crucial role models for students, and it is critical that they emphasize the value of physical exercise (Nowicka, 2006).

The table below illustrates how a youngster can receive the recommended one hour of daily physical exercise. If one spends an hour a day exercising, it may be a significant contribution to preventing obesity across the globe. The number of overweight youngsters has decreased as a result of limiting time spent watching television and playing video games. There are several methods to acquire one hour of daily physical exercise.

Walking to and from school is a terrific method to get twenty to thirty minutes of exercise. Cleaning a room in the home also enables you to move about and bend down. Climbing stairs, walking to a friend instead of driving, going shopping, and walking the dog are all wonderful ways to get some exercise. Avoiding school bus trips, watching television, and playing video games can help you achieve your goal of getting the required one hour of activity each day (Nowicka, 2006).

Two examples of how everyday activities can be accumulated during a common day

Example 1.

How can a child accumulate 1 h of everyday activities

  • Walks to school- 10 min
  • Plays during breaks- 20 min
  • Walks home from school- 10 min
  • Cleans room- 10 min
  • Walks to meet friends- 10 min

Total 60 min

Example 2.

How can a child accumulate 1 h of everyday activities

  • Rides bike to school- 5 min
  • Walks and talks during breaks- 20 min
  • Rides bike home from school- 5 min
  • Goes shopping- 10 min
  • Walks the dog- 20 min

Total 60 min

Treatment of Obesity

What treatment options are available for a patient suffering from obesity?

Causes and Effects of Obesity
Treatment of Obesity

Despite the fact that there are medical conditions that might affect a person as a consequence of obesity, there are certain medical therapies that can help. For many individuals who want to reduce weight quickly, gastric bypass surgery is a possibility. Many individuals are opting for gastric bypass surgery these days. Gastric bypass surgery is a long-term procedure that aids obese patients in losing weight.

Although this procedure is more prevalent in adults, some experts believe it might benefit teens as well. Gastric bypass surgery reduces the size of the stomach and enables food to flow through without passing through the small intestine. It causes a person to feel fuller sooner than normal, resulting in fewer calories being absorbed and weight reduction.

Leptin was injected into rats when they were born, and the rats grew up to be slimmer adults. Leptin is a hormone that affects metabolism and body weight. Although this poses ethical concerns, giving children a leptin injection before they are born will prepare them for a leaner future. When there are healthy and natural strategies to avoid obesity, this may seem drastic.

Different organs of the body have different drives or cravings for various foods. The brain requires the most energy out of all the organs. The brain is consumed by forty percent of newborn babies, twenty-five percent of children, and ten percent of adults. Because there are so many different foods to choose from in America, fat and carbohydrates account for about 45% of the total. (Zetterstrom & Elanson-Albertsson, 2005). Foods heavy in fat and sugar provide greater satisfaction than other foods, making it simpler to overeat and gain weight. Sucrose in a liquid has a higher chance of triggering your appetite than sucrose in solid food (Elanson-Albertsson & Zetterstrom, 2005).

Conclusion

Obesity is defined as a discrepancy between the amount of energy expended and the amount of energy consumed by the body. Obesity in modern culture is caused by a variety of factors, and the condition has a wide range of consequences. Obesity prevention must begin at a young age, and parents must take steps to help their children live a healthy lifestyle.

Teens must reject societal influences and make informed health decisions. To make headway in avoiding obesity, schools must teach students more about the disease’s origins and lethal consequences, as well as how to prevent it. Obesity may be avoided by eating a nutritious diet and exercising regularly. This will help you live a better and happier life.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What are the main causes of childhood obesity?

Obesity affects children all around the globe for a variety of reasons. Obesity in children is caused by three factors: diet, physical activity, and the psychosocial environment of the family. Obesity may be caused by early neonatal weight increase. Obesity in children and adults is linked to this (Cole 2007). During smoking while pregnancy lowers an infant’s birth weight, it increases post-natal weight gain, which is a cause of obesity. 2007 (Cole). When a youngster accumulates a lot of weight at a young age, it’s a warning that they’ll become fat rather than gain weight gradually.

2. How do you define obesity?

 

Causes and Effects of Obesity
Obesity

Obesity is defined as a discrepancy between the amount of energy expended and the amount of energy consumed by the body. Obesity and being overweight are often misunderstood in today’s culture. Overweight is defined as a body mass index of 25 or higher, while obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or higher.

3. What is the best treatment for obesity?

Despite the fact that there are medical conditions that might affect a person as a consequence of obesity, there are certain medical therapies that can help. For many individuals who want to reduce weight quickly, gastric bypass surgery is a possibility. Many individuals are opting for gastric bypass surgery these days. Gastric bypass surgery is a long-term procedure that aids obese patients in losing weight.

References

Cole, 2007, Early causes of child obesity and implications for preventions, 2-4, Retrieved April 12th 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=6&hid=108&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Cole, Bellizzi, Flegal, Dietz, 2000, Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey, Retrieved April 11, 2008, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/320/7244/1240

Deforche, De Bourdeaudhuij, tanghe, debode, hills, bouckaert, 2004, Role of physical activity and eating behaviour in weight control after treatment in severely obese children and adolescentsRetrieved April 12th, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=11&hid=114&sid=adeb569d-7792-42b8-a6e3-94f22e8572f1%40sessionmgr104

Erlanson-Albertsson and Zetterstrom, The global obesity epidemic: Snacking and obesity may start with free meals during infant feeding, 1523-1531, Retrieved April 18th, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=14&hid=113&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Lissau, 2007, Prevention of overweight in the school arena, Retrieved April 12th, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=16&hid=114&sid=adeb569d-7792-42b8-a6e3-94f22e8572f1%40sessionmgr104

Nowicka, Dietitians and exercise professionals in a childhood obesity treatment team, 23-29, Retrieved April 18th, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=21&hid=116&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Nowicka, Physical activity-key issues in treatment of childhood obesity, 39-45, retrieved April 11th 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=10&hid=8&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Schwartz and Brownell, Actions Necessary to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Creating the Climate for Change, 78-87, Retrieved April 12, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=28&hid=116&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Heights, 2008, Predicting Obesity in Young Adulthood from Childhood and Parental Obesity, Retrieved April 11, 2008, https://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/337/13/869.

Yaussi, The Obesity Epidemic, 105-108, Retrieved April 13th, 2008, http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=32&hid=16&sid=5536f511-b9fc-4551-9d4a-44b312dac852%40sessionmgr106

Causes and Effects of Obesity

 

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