Defining Social and Medical Models of Health, Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health, and Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health.

Defining Social and Medical Models of Health, Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health, and Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health.

This essay focuses on; defining social and medical models of health, key components of the social and medical models of health, and comparison of social and medical models of health. Adopt its structure as a guide to writing the perfect essay.

Introduction

The ways in which health, illness, and disease are defined are influenced by a variety of circumstances and models. For example, a practitioner’s definition of health may differ from that of other people in society. Theoretical approaches to health and illness have always been diverse in western society. Though health models differ, they all play a role in determining what should or should not be the focus of public health concern (Also look at the social and medical models of disability with regards to this). The medical and social models of health will be defined and compared, as well as their main components, in this essay.

Defining Social and Medical Models of Health

What is the social model of health?

The social model of health, according to Eckersley et al (2001), emphasizes the importance of societal changes and empowers individuals to take charge of their own lifestyles and health in order to create a healthier population. The concept focuses on socioeconomic variables such as unemployment, bad housing, and poverty that are linked to sickness. For example, according to UK national statistics (2009), life expectancy figures reflect the impact of socioeconomic class and poverty on health and sickness.

Despite the fact that life expectancy in the United Kingdom has increased, UK national statistics (2009) discovered a significant disparity in life expectancy between the working and middle classes. The social model of health strives to promote personal and community well-being and health by assessing the conditions of social and environmental health factors, as well as biological and medical issues, both locally and nationally.

What is the medical model of health?

The medical model is the most dominant and strong health discourse because it solely defines health as the absence of disease. According to Kemnitz (2010), the medical model is the central medical knowledge system in the Western world, with its primary goal being the treatment of human ailments. The focus of this paradigm is on a person’s physical functioning, and it defines illness and poor health as the presence of disease. Culyer (1991) noted that the model has thoughts and perspectives about biological states and disorders that are genetically determined. The body depicted in this model works like a machine, and if it malfunctions, the doctor will repair it.

According to Friedman et al. (2007), the concept has been around for centuries and is used by health care practitioners to diagnose disorders. It focuses on the physical manifestations of sickness. It examines an individual’s bodily functioning and characterizes illness and disease as physical infections or injuries. The model’s main focus is on therapy rather than prevention. Its purpose is to reduce the treatment of morbidity associated with unhealthy, premature death, and illness situations.

Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health

What are the key components of the social model of health?

Because equity is the main point for health service delivery, the social model of health key components involves health being determined by a broad range of social, environmental, and economic factors as well as biomedical risk factors. It also acts to reduce inequalities related to age, gender, race, culture, socioeconomic status, and location.

What are the key components of the medical models of health?

The standard analytical format method is a crucial component of the medical model of health: The model is based on the implicit premise that the illness described by the person, now known as the patient, indicates a pathology, or disordered portion, called the disease or disorder, which is the source of the illness.

Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health

What are the similarities between social and medical models of health?

Both social and medical health models highlight and attempt to treat people using various methods. The medical model uses science and medicine to treat patients, but the social model considers emotional and social elements in the development of diseases, illnesses, and injuries. The underlying commonality is that they are both used to treat individuals.

Both theories, according to Baum et al (2001), focus on the underlying causes of illness or disease. Before treating an ailment, a medical problem must be diagnosed. Similarly, the social model of health examines the sociological fundamental causes and origins of illness in order to find a treatment.

Defining Social and Medical Models of Health, Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health, and Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health.
Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health

The social and medical paradigm of health, according to Small (2006), strives to free patients from disorders defined medically. Patients are set free by the medical paradigm, which uses medicine and science to treat them. The social model liberates the patient by equipping them with the knowledge and skills they need to live a healthier lifestyle and take preventative steps.

Both models employ medical knowledge in the treatment of ill patients. This is scientific in nature because, just as the medical model employs technologically improved methods and medications, the social model employs modern therapies such as reflexology in the treatment of patients.

Another similarity between the social and medical models is that both are applied to a patient by the doctor. The doctor can persuade a patient using the social model of health, and even advise them to adjust their behaviors to avoid certain non-communicable diseases. Similarly, the medical approach was used to treat acute and physical ailments (Kronenfeld 2003)

What are the differences between social and medical models of health?

When comparing the social and medical models of health, there are numerous contrasts. The social model of health, according to Bruun et al. (2002), focuses more on social and environmental health determinants than on biological variables. In contrast, the medical approach focuses on individual patients.

The primary analysis structure of the medical model, according to Macdonald (2003), includes an investigation of physical signs and symptoms of sickness. It’s also been narrowed down to the part that becomes disorganized. The social model, on the other hand, refers to the social and environmental factors that influence people’s health as they live and work.

Defining Social and Medical Models of Health, Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health, and Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health.
Differences between social and medical models of health

The medical model of health focuses on treating a particular disease with specific therapy, whereas the social model of health is premised on the theory that in order to accomplish health gains, we must first meet people’s basic needs.

In addition to the comparison, the social model of health recognizes the environmental and social aspects that influence health and create disparities, while the medical model is effective for illness primarily caused by organic diseases – although with strict drawbacks when no single cause or treatment is identified.

Summary of the Main Differences in Bullet Points

  • The biomedical model focuses only on the physical and biological aspects of disease and illness, whereas the social model considers a wide range of determinants;
  • The biomedical model is practiced by doctors and health professionals, whereas the social model can be practiced by a wider range of people;
  • The biomedical model is associated with the diagnoses, cure, and treatment of disease, whereas the social model also considers prevention;
  • The biomedical model of health placed a considerable burden on the healthcare system, whereas the social model of health prevents some of that burden;
  • And, finally, the social model of health is in practice today, whereas the biomedical model of health ended a long time ago

Conclusion

Humanity does not allow nature to take its course in the field of health. The widely held belief in healthcare is that breakthroughs in medical science lead to better outcomes. The medical model of health focuses on illness eradication through accurate diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, for a healthy population, the social model of health emphasizes societal changes and changes in people’s lifestyles. When we consider these health models, we can better understand why some people take better care of their health than others.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What are social models of health?

The social model of health, according to Eckersley et al (2001), emphasizes the importance of societal changes and empowers individuals to take charge of their own lifestyles and health in order to create a healthier population.

2. What is the difference between the medical model and the social model?

When comparing the social and medical models of health, there are numerous contrasts. The social model of health, according to Bruun et al. (2002), focuses more on social and environmental health determinants than on biological variables. In contrast, the medical approach focuses on individual patients.

3. What does the social model of health focus on?

The concept focuses on socioeconomic variables such as unemployment, bad housing, and poverty that are linked to sickness.

4. What is the meaning of medical model?

According to Kemnitz (2010), the medical model is the central medical knowledge system in the Western world, with its primary goal being the treatment of human ailments. The focus of this paradigm is on a person’s physical functioning, and it defines illness and poor health as the presence of disease.

5. Why is the social model of health important?

The social model of health strives to promote personal and community well-being and health by assessing the conditions of social and environmental health factors, as well as biological and medical issues, both locally and nationally.

References

Macdonald, T. H. (2003) The social significance of health promotion. London: Routledge. Retrieved on 24th august 2013 from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=93102.

Mechanic, D. (1983) Handbook of health, health care, and the health professions. New York: Free Press.

Eckersley, R., Dixon, J., & Douglas, R. M. (2001) The social origins of health and well-being. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press.

Kemnitz, A. (2010) A simple model of health insurance competition. Munich: CESifo.

Culyer, A. J. (1991) The Economics of health. Aldershot, Hants, England, E. Elgar Pub.

Friedman, H. S., & Silver, R. C. (2007) Foundations of health psychology. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Baum, A., Revenson, T. A., & Singer, J. E. (2001) Handbook of health psychology. Mahwah, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Small, M. F. (2006) The culture of our discontent: beyond the medical model of mental illness. Washington, D.C., Joseph Henry Press.

Uk Statistics Authority. (2009) Priorities for designation as national statistics: January 2009, report 3. London, UK Statistics Authority.

Kronenfeld, J. J. (2003) Reorganizing health care delivery systems: problems of managed care and other models of health care delivery. Amsterdam, JAI.

Bruun Jensen, B., Simovska, V., & Cheshlarov, M. (2002) Models of health promoting schools in Europe. Copenhagen, European Network of Health Promoting Schools, Technical Secretariat.

Defining Social and Medical Models of Health, Key Components of Social and Medical Models of Health, and Comparison of Social and Medical Models of Health.

 

 

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