Fiscal policy can be determined as the use of government spending and taxes In order to alter the Gross Domestic Product (GAP). From the macro perspective, the federal budget is a tool that can shift aggregate demand and thereby alter macroeconomic outcomes. Although fiscal policy can be used to pursue any of the economic goals, we need to explore its potential to ensure full employment and observe the Impact on inflation.
The mix of output and distribution of Income will determine the potential of fiscal policy. The objective of fiscal policy Is not always to Increase aggregate demand. At times, the economy Is already expanding too fast and fiscal restraint seems to be more appropriate. This means tax hikes or spending cuts are intended to reduce aggregate demand. In the short term, priorities may reflect the business cycle corresponds to a natural disaster but in the longer term; the drivers can be development levels, demographics, or resource endowments.
The desire to reduce poverty might lead a low income country to tilt spending toward primary health care, whereas In an advanced economy, pension reforms might target mooing long-term costs related to an aging population_ The mall objective of Fiscal Policy is to achieving desirable price level. Economic stability requires the stability of general prices. Fiscal policy should be used to remove the instability in price level so that ideal level is maintained. However, the maintenance of a desirable price level has good effects on production, employment and national income.
Besides providing goods and services, fiscal policy objectives vary. In the short term, governments may focus on macroeconomic stabilization. For example, stimulating an along economy, ambition rising inflation, or helping reduce external vulnerabilities. In the longer term, the aim may be to foster sustainable growth or reduce poverty with actions on the supply side to improve infrastructure or education. Although these objectives are broadly shared across countries, their relative importance differs depending on country circumstances.
Another objective is, to achieving desirable consumption level which Is Important for political, social and economic consideration. At times, consumption can be affected by expenditure and tax policies of the government. Therefore, fiscal policy should be used to Increase welfare of economy. Fiscal policy is created to achieving desirable employment level. This will then determine the living standard of the people. Apart from that, it is necessary for political stability and for minimization of production. The purpose of fiscal policy is to divert resource and increase capital.
Deficiency of capital is the main reason for under-development in the under-developed countries. This Is where large amounts are required for Industry and economic development. If the market does not self-adjust, then the overspent may have to get involved in a difficult situation in order to improve it. According to Robert H. Frank & Ben S. Brenan (2009), fiscal policy consists of two tools: first is the changes in government purchases and second, the changes in taxes or transfer payments. It can be explained where an increase in government purchases will increase independent expenditure by an equal amount.
However, the economy is in recession, increase in government purchases and cut in taxes are helpful in stimulating more spending as well as eliminating recessionary gap. There re two fiscal policy mechanisms which are discretionary fiscal policy and automatic fiscal policy. Discretionary fiscal policy is used to “fine tune” the economy along with some difficulties. Fine tuning refers to the use of fiscal (and monetary) policy to equalize all fluctuations in private sector’s spending to keep real GAP at or near its potential.
According to Williamson (2010), the government can use this type of policy to shift AD curve to the right and close recessionary gap. Yet, many economists still argue that when a recessionary gap is large enough and persist in a long run, gross inning might be suitable in order to stabilize the economy. Another mechanism policy is automatic stabilizer. Tax system is the most important automatic stabilizer. Personal income taxes vary directly amount with income and in fact, it can rise and fall by greater percentage itself. Big increases and decrease are both lessened by automatic changes in income tax receipts.
Because incomes, earning and profits often fall during recession, the government collects less in taxes. These changes automatically can help to encounter business cycle fluctuations. Raiment spending can be broken into several categories. Its expenditure consists of combined capital and current spending of federal government which Includes debt interest payments to holders of government debt. Governments have responded by aiming to boost activity through two channels: An automatic stabilizers and fiscal stimulus that is either through new discretionary or tax cuts.
Stabilizers Nil go into effect as tax revenues and expenditure levels change and do not depend on specific actions but operate in relation to the business cycle. An example can be taken when an output falls, the amount of taxes collected declines because corporate refits and taxpayers incomes fall. The size of the government relates to the automatic stabilizer and it will become larger in advanced economies. When the stabilizers are larger, there may be less need for tax cuts, subsidies or public works programs since both approaches help to soften the effects of a downturn.
As such, in current crisis, countries with larger stabilizers have tended to resort less to discretionary measures. Meanwhile, stimulus maybe difficult to design and implement effectively and difficult to reverse when conditions pick up. In many low Income countries According to Carline & Cookies (2006), governments directly and indirectly influence the way resources are used in the economy. The basic equation of national income accounting helps show how this happens: GAP = C + I + G + NIX. On the left side is gross domestic product (GAP), where the value of all final goods and services produced in the economy.
Meanwhile on the right side are the sources of aggregate spending or demand which are private consumption (C), private investment (l), purchases of goods and services by the government (G), and exports minus imports net exports, NIX). This equation makes it evident that governments affect economic activity (GAP), controlling G directly and influencing C, l, and NIX indirectly, through changes in taxes, transfers, and spending. Fiscal policy that increases aggregate expansionary or “loose. ” By contrast, fiscal policy is often considered tight if it reduces demand via lower spending.
Understand that the government directly controls what they purchases, but they can also indirectly affect aggregate demand through taxes. For example, an increase in taxes or reduction in transfer payments can reduce disposable income and decrease consumer spending. Similarly, a decrease in taxes can increase disposable income which leads to an increase in consumer spending. Ere government can also influence investment spending through business taxes. Ere example from this can be taken when a tax cut for firms may increase investment spending and shift the AD curve to the right. Thus, the government can change AD in many ways. He government can stimulate AD to reduce unemployment by using the Expansionary Fiscal Policy to close the recessionary gap. From Figure A on the right below, the initial equilibrium is at El which is a recession scenario, with real output below potential URGE. Starts at this point and moving along the short run AS curve, and increase in government purchases would increase the size of budget deficit and lead to increase in AD, ideally from DAD to DAD. The change occurred with result in increase in price level, from Pl to UP while increase from URGE to RIGID. The recessionary gap is then closed.
If change policy is the right magnitude and at an appropriate time, expansionary fiscal policy can pull the economy out from recession and encourage full employment. Raiment purchase change may affect AD directly. Figure B below shows how government reduction of AD can reduce inflation. This is called Contraction Fiscal Policy. Reduction in government purchases will shift AD curve leftward from DAD to DAD. This will lowers the price level from Pl to UP and brings back URGE back to full employment level which results in new short and long run equilibrium at EH and Inflationary gap is closed.
In this section, I will further explain how taxes can help in developing better economic growth, boost employment and reduce inflation. According to McConnell (2008) & Bruce (2008), a Benefit Received Principle can help to Improve growth. This happens when the individuals receiving the benefits are those ho pay for them. For instance for gasoline tax, the more a person drives on highway the more miles and more gasoline used and this means more taxes collected. This principle may work for some private goods, especially for those who pay for such public spending. Eased on the Wall Street Journal by Alan Reproach (2005), a consumption tax could raise the same amount of revenue as the current tax system and increase GAP by 9% n the long run, as production increases with increased saving and capital formation. Rag consumption is based on amount earned means that public are taxed based on Nat they take out of the economy. Understand that consumers will not spend every penny of tax cut, but they will definitely save some of the cut and spend the rest. The lesser simulative power of tax cuts is explained by consumer saving. Avian (as per the Marginal Propensity Consume). Just a brief explanation of MAC, it is Hence, the initial spending injection is less than size of the tax cut. By contrast, every dollar of government purchases goes directly into the circular flow. But based on the figure below, it does not mean the AD can’t be closed with tax cut. It Just means that desired tax cut must be larger than required stimulus. Figure 1: The Tax Cut Multiplier eased on the source from Time which was published in 2001 by Decision Economics, the cuts add up have increased the GAP from 1. 8% in 2001 to 3. 4% in 2002.
Besides that, the data shows that unemployment rate have decreased from 5. 0% to 4. 9% in 2001 and 5. 3% dropped to 5. 0% in 2002. Tax cuts also has increased the personal spending from $6. 45 to 6. 48 (2001) and $6. 6 to $6. 7 in 2002. As a result this Bush tax cuts were a form of fiscal stimulus that boosted consumption, increased real Gross Domestic Product growth and reduced unemployment. Refer Figure 2 below for lealer data explanation. Source: Time, May 28, 2001. Although injections of government spending can close a GAP gap, increased purchases are not the only way to get there.
The increased demand required to raise output and employment levels from IQ to SQ could emerge from increases in autonomous consumption or investment as well as from increased government spending. It could also come from abroad, in the form of increased demand for exports. In other words, big spender will help, whether from public sector or private sector. 3. 0 Comparison between the two fiscal tools respective power. In 2. 0 and 3. , I have explained that a dollar of tax cuts is less simulative than a dollar of government purchases.
This does not mean that tax cuts are undesirable, but they need to be larger that desired injection of spending. The news from Heritage Foundation (refer to references at last page for web page) indicates that 2001 tax cuts have boosted both consumer spending and as a result, real GAP growth. There are some advantages of taxation in developing the economic. I understand that if there are no taxes, then government will not earn any income from taxation and civilians do not spend any time worrying about how to evade taxes. Government tax revenue does not necessarily increase as the tax rate increase.
Working people Nil decide to work less if the tax rate increase and this results in productivity declines. Therefore, the higher tax rate, the more time people spend evading taxes and the less time they spend on more productive activity. So the lower the tax rate, the higher value and quality of goods produced. Government expenditure occurred especially on civil administration, defense forces, public health and education, maintenance of government machinery. Most of the capital expenditure incurred on building durable assets such as highways, literatures dams, irrigation projects, purchasing machinery and equipment.
These expenditures are expected to improve the productive capacity of Malaysian economy. The impact of government expenditure plays huge role in improving the economy. Government spending may become a burden at some point, but as large as a government is, the more spending will boost economic growth in protecting property, developing infrastructure. In other words, government spending is necessary for the successful operation of the law rules. 4. 0 Summary Nearly every society in the world has been interested in major economic goals.
One f it is to maintain the employment of human resources at high levels means that Job opportunities are huge while financial suffering from lack of work and income is relatively uncommon. Another goal is to stabilize the prices at stable levels so that consumers and producers can make better decisions. As I have explained in the above comparison of both tools, fiscal policy contains many tools to managing aggregate demand. When the economy is in a slump, government can stimulate it by purchasing more and cut taxes. When the economy is overheat, government can reduce inflationary pressures by reducing its purchasing and raising taxes.