FRS aim is to necessitate all entities falling within its range to foreground a scope of of import constituents of fiscal public presentation to assistance users in understanding the public presentation achieved by entity in the period and help them in the organizing a footing for their appraisal of future consequences and hard currency flows. FRS 3 is concerned with the income statement, Paragraph 4 of FRS 3 defines a discontinued operation as one that is sold or terminated, and:
the sale or expiration is completed before the earlier of three months after the twelvemonth terminal or the day of the month on which the fiscal statements are approved
for a expiration, the activities have ceased for good
the sale or expiration has a material consequence on the nature and focal point of the entity ‘s operations and represents a material decrease in its operating installations, either from backdown from a peculiar market ( category or concern or geographical ) or from a material decrease in the turnover in the company ‘s go oning markets
the assets, liabilities, consequences of operations and activities are clearly distinguishable – physically, operationally, and for fiscal coverage intents.
All the conditions ( a ) to ( vitamin D ) have to be satisfied, otherwise it is a go oning operation. Paragraph 14 of FRS 3 provinces that acquisitions, go oning operations, and discontinued operations should be shown individually in the income statement. The minimal revelation of discontinued operations should be of turnover and operating net income on the face of the income statement, and the points between turnover and operating net income should be shown either on the face of the income statement or in the notes. Where involvement or revenue enhancement has been divided between go oning and discontinued operations, the method and implicit in premises should be disclosed.
Paragraph 17 provinces that reorganisation or restructuring of go oning operations ensuing from a sale or expiration should be included in go oning operations. In paragraph 18, a sale is defined as a binding sale understanding, and a expiration is a elaborate formal program from which the entity can non realistically withdraw. Any proviso should include merely:
the direct costs of the sale or expiration
any operating losingss up to the day of the month of the sale or expiration.
The losingss ( a ) and ( B ) of the discontinued operation should be shown individually on the face of the income statement. If the sale or expiration does non measure up as a discontinued operation, so it should be included in go oning operations.
IAS 35 Discontinuing Operationss
IAS 35, Discontinuing Operationss was issued in 1998. It replaced and expanded upon paragraphs 19 to 22 of IAS 8, Net Net income or Loss for the Period, Cardinal Mistakes and Changes in Accounting Policies. The demands are really similar to the UK FRS 3, but more elaborate. The criterion says it applies to stoping a major operation of an endeavor. It defines a major operation as a ‘large constituent of an endeavor – a concern or geographical section ‘ . It so goes into more item about what constitutes a major operation. It says that ‘different phases of vertically integrated operations may be identified as separate concern sections ‘ . Besides, disposal of portion of a concern section may be a major operation. A major operation is expected to happen comparatively infrequently, so many restructurings would non measure up as a disposal of a major operation. The initial revelation of the event is the happening of the earlier of:
the endeavor come ining into a binding sale understanding for well all of the assets attributable to the discontinuing operation
the board of managers both O.K.ing a elaborate formal program for the discontinuation, and doing an proclamation of the program.
Like FRS 3, IAS 35 requires a discontinuing operation to be included in the fiscal statements if the determination to stop is made between the balance sheet day of the month and the day of the month the fiscal statements are approved ( unlike FRS 3, there is no three-month regulation ) . In IAS 35 there is no demand that the discontinuation or disposal should hold been completed by the clip the fiscal statements are approved.
Besides, there is no specification of the clip within which the discontinuation should take topographic point ( FRED 32/ED 4 topographic points a normal clip bound of 12 months after the twelvemonth terminal ) . On revelation of stoping operations, IAS 35 requires:
a description of the discontinuing operation and its concern or geographical section
the day of the month of the initial revelation and the day of the month discontinuation is expected to be completed
the pre-tax addition or loss recognized on disposals of assets or colony of liabilities attributable to the discontinuing operation should be shown on the face of the income statement, all other revelations may be included in the notes to the fiscal statements
for the balance sheet, it requires revelation of the ‘carrying sums at the balance sheet day of the month of the entire assets and entire liabilities to be disposed of ‘
revelation of ‘the sums of net hard currency flows attributable to the operating, investment, and funding activities of the discontinuing operation during the current fiscal period ‘ .
Disposal of Non-Current Assets and Presentation of Discontinued Operations
There are a few minor add-ons and omissions, and alterations from international accounting criterions, To include disposal of non-current assets.
The presentation includes the balance sheet ( which is non included in FRS 3 ) .
There is more elaborate account of how assets held for sale should be valued.
For international criterions, it will include fewer stoping operations than IAS 35, as:
IAS 35 requires the discontinuing operation to be included if it is authorized in the period between the balance sheet day of the month and the day of the month the fiscal statements are approved. With ED 4, the discontinuing operation will merely be included if the determination has been made before the twelvemonth terminal.
IAS 35 specifies no clip bound within which discontinuation should be completed, whereas ED 4 suggests the period should non transcend 12 months after the balance sheet day of the month.
FRED 32/ED 4 starts by stating its aim is to better information in fiscal statements about assets and disposal groups that are to be disposed of, and go oning operations. It seeks to make this by stipulating:
the measuring, presentation and revelation of non-current assets and disposal groups to be disposed of
the presentation of discontinued operations ( paragraph 1 ) .
In paragraph 2 it states that it does non use to the following non-current assets:
deferred revenue enhancement assets
fiscal assets within the range of IAS 39, Fiscal Instruments: Recognition and Measurement
assets originating from employee benefits
fiscal assets originating under rentals.
Then, in paragraph 8 it makes the of import point that non-current assets should be valued at the lower of transporting value and the just value less costs to sell.
In paragraph 16, it says that depreciation should non be charged while a non-current plus is held for sale. The ASB believe that fixed assets which are go oning to be used should be depreciated, and depreciation should non be suspended on assets which are go oning to be used, merely because they have been labelled as ‘held for sale within one twelvemonth ‘ ( FRS 15, Tangible Fixed Assets concurs with the ASB ‘s position
Disclosure in the income statement
Paragraph 24 provinces that grosss, disbursals, pre-tax net income or loss, and income revenue enhancement disbursal of discontinued operations should be shown individually on the face of the income statement. The followers should be shown either on the face of the income statement or in the notes:
the addition or loss on re-measurement to fair value less costs to sell, or disposal of the assets or disposal group, and the income revenue enhancement disbursal of the discontinued operation
the net hard currency flows attributable to the operating, puting and financing activities of the discontinued operation
accommodations in the current period to sums antecedently presented as discontinued operations.
Disclosure in the balance sheet
In the balance sheet, there should be separate presentation of non-current assets and assets of a disposal group as held for sale ( this includes liabilities ) .
The notes to the balance sheet should give a description of the facts and fortunes taking to the disposal and the expected mode and timing of the disposal, and the section in which the non-current plus or disposal group is presented ( if applicable ) .
Example of Disclosure the Discontinue operation from the P & A ; G company in 2009:
In November.2008, the Company completed the divestiture of our Coffee concern through the amalgamation of its Folgers java subordinate into.The J.M. Smucker Company ( Smucker ) in an all-stock contrary MorrisTrust dealing. In connexion with the amalgamation, 38.7.million portions of common stock of the Company were tendered by stockholders and
exchanged for all portions of Folgers common stock, ensuing in an addition of exchequer stock of
$ 2,466. Pursuant to the amalgamation, a Smucker subordinate merged with and into Folgers and Folgers became a entirely owned subordinate of Smucker. The Company recorded an after-tax
addition on the dealing of $ 2,011, which is included in Net Net incomes from Discontinued Operationss in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings for the twelvemonth ended June.30, .2009.
The Coffee concern had historically been portion of the Company ‘s Snacks, Coffee and Pet Care reportable section, every bit good as the java part of our away-from-home concern which is included in the Fabric Care and Home Care reportable section. In conformity with the applicable accounting counsel for the damage or disposal of durable
assets, the consequences of Folgers are presented as discontinued operations and, as such, have been excluded from both go oning operations and section consequences for all old ages presented. Following is selected fiscal information included in Net Net incomes from Discontinued Operationss for the Coffee concern:
Coverage of Discontinued Activities
The net income and loss history must demo individually the public presentation of the discontinued activities individually from those of go oning activities to guarantee that the fiscal information being disclosed is both relevant to the demands of users and dependable. To besides guarantee comparison of fiscal information the anterior twelvemonth histories must besides be re-drafted or restated to include the consequences of the discontinued operation individually.
IFRS 5 allows the concern to describe discontinued operations in the net income and loss history utilizing one of the following options:
The concern can elect to unwrap merely the net income or loss made by the discontinued concern in the net income and loss history. The concern should so do a full revelation of the discontinued events in the notes to the histories. The note to the histories should unwrap the elaborate fiscal consequences of the discontinued activity or the sold portion of the concern.
The concern can besides elect to unwrap on the face of its histories the net income or loss made by the discontinued operations. The net income and loss will unwrap in item the dislocation of the grosss, operating costs, involvement costs, and the revenue enhancement associating to the discontinued operations.
Why should Discontinue Operations be Disclosed Individually?
The public presentation of discontinued operations is disclosed individually from the public presentation of go oning events to let the users of accounting information to:
Appreciate the fiscal effects of the closing or sale of the discontinued operation. If the public presentation of the discontinued operation is disclosed individually users of accounting information will be able to understand the sum of concern that has been lost, the portion that will no longer be portion of the concern in future. They will be able to understand what both the hereafter gross watercourses and cost constructions of the staying concern will be in future.
Appreciate the implicit in public presentation of the staying concern. Users will be able to determine the likely hereafter returns that the new or staying concern will bring forth in future. Users will be able to reap from the size of this retrenchment the size of the concern lost, therefore they will be able to calculate and do more informed judgements of the staying concern.