, Research Paper
The undermentioned study will try to supply a brief, yet concise policy profile of Indiana Republican Senator Richard Lugar. Get downing with a short biographical reappraisal, the profile will continue and concentrate on Senator Lugar ’ s major countries of public policy concern ; Foreign Affairs, Agriculture, and in portion, his 1996 Presidential Campaign which encompasses a myriad of issues, both foreign and domestic. It would be impossible to include every facet of Senator Lugar ’ s political calling and personal life within the range of this paper. Alternatively, accent will be placed on the most of import and critical points of his term of office in American political relations, at the federal degree. However, in the decision of this text a rational account will be offered to give insight refering Senator Lugar ’ s motives and inclinations to move in the manner he does. Biographical Background Richard Green Lugar was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, on April 4, 1932. Attending Shortridge High School he excelled academically and was the category Valedictorian. After graduation, Dick Lugar ( as he is normally known ) attended Denison University, in Ohio, and met his future married woman Charlene Smeltzer. In 1954 Lugar received his grade from Denison and went on to be a Rhodes Scholar at Pembroke College on the campus of Oxford University, in England. Richard and Charlene were married in September, 1956, and now have four boies and six grandchildren. After finishing surveies at Oxford, Dick Lugar went to the American Embassy in London, England and quickly enlisted in the Navy as an intelligence briefer and was responsible for giving intelligence studies to ‘ high brass ’ , including the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. Along with Senator Lugar ’ s political accomplishments, he has occupied places in the private sector, every bit good as a stretch in the United States Navy. As a immature adult male Richard Lugar worked at, and managed the household concerns, a farm, and a nutrient machinery house started by his Grandfather over 100 old ages ago, Thomas L. Green & A ; Company. Both are located in the Indianapolis country. In 1964, Lugar obtained his first political office with the Indianapolis School Board. He so went on to win the Mayoral command in 1968, and served two footings at the caput of metropolis authorities in Indianapolis. Senator Lugar ’ s following stepping rock in political relations would be a failed effort for the office of United States Senator in 1974, losing to incumbent Birch Bayh, male parent of the current Indiana Governor, Evan Bayh. Suprisingly, Lugar lost the election by merely 75,000 ballots, rather an achievement sing the tenure factor. Lugar ran for the Senate once more in 1976 and captured the place from Democratic incumbent Vance Hartke. Senator Lugar has since been reelected two times ( in 1988, he won by an overpowering 68 % per centum of the entire ballot ) and is presently in the thick of a run for President of the United States where he faces eight other rivals for the Republican nomination. Other accomplishments by Lugar that are deserving adverting are: His choice to the vice-presidential term of the National League of Cities in 1970. He was appointed president, of the Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee for the 98th Congress. Served as president for the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1985 to 1987. He is presently the president of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Senator Lugar besides serves on the Senate Select Intelligence Committee, and Foreign Affairs sub-committees ; Western Hemisphere and Peace Corps Affairs, International Economic Policy, East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Trade, Oceans and Environment. ( 101st, 486-489 ; 102nd,485-488 ; Directory,1399 ; Miller, 95) Foreign Affairs Senator Richard Lugar is acknowledged to be one of the pre-eminent national leaders in the kingdom of foreign policy. Some have even claimed that he is in world a “ shadow Secretary of State ” , being recognized around the Earth for his engagement with international political relations. Lugar ’ s engagement and rank to identify Senate Foreign Affairs sub-committees, and being the chair of the full commission for one session of Congress shows his willingness and diligence to be involved in this policy country. Note, nevertheless, Senator Lugar was forced out of the chairmanship and did non voluntarily go forth. ( 101st Congress, 486 ) Lugar has four rule premises for good foreign policy. They are as follows: * ” To support and progress the cause of democracy, freedom, and human rights throughout the world. ” * “ To advance prosperity and societal advancement through a free, unfastened, and spread outing market-oriented planetary economy. ” * “ To work diplomatically to assist decide unsafe regional conflicts. ” * “ To work to cut down and finally extinguish the danger of atomic war. ” Senator Lugar has made an ernest effort to encompass these thoughts and employ their definitions in most all countries of foreign policy. ( Lugar, 28 ) During Lugar ’ s calling in the United States Senate he has been afforded many chances to utilize his foreign policy art. Among these cases, some of the most noteworthy shall be recognized within this paper. Again, there are merely excessively many instances to name each and every history, and one would be pressed to happen them all. Those instances that were most seeable to the populace will be examined here. The inside informations are at a lower limit, but each will be represented by a brief outline of the affair at manus and what function Senator Lugar played in the result. To get down with, Richard Lugar is a major advocate of the North American Free Trade Agreement. He strongly believes in the free market, and exciting its growing by increasing market portion through unrestricted trade with North American states. Once criticized for his function in forcing NAFTA through Congress, and its apparently negative impact following the prostration of the Mexican peso – Lugar defended the free trade agreement by indicating out that U. S. exports had soared to over one billion dollars and Mexico ’ s sufferings were due to misdirection of their pecuniary unit and non the new understanding. Senator Lugar points out convulsion that many Latin states have faced in recent old ages, and provinces unambiguously, these jobs can non be over-looked in order to fulfill the sceptics ’ given ’ s to free trade failure. Alternatively, one must poise for some economic turbulency that was bound to go on, and delay for the terminal consequence which will be good to all parties involved. ( Times,26 ) In another facet of the planetary market, Lugar has stanchly supported trade, investing, and loan warrants to the states of the old Soviet Union. His logical thinking is double with accent on guaranting the immature democracies ’ endurance in a period of clip when they are surely tested by extremist alteration and reforms in economic and political policies. However, Senator Lugar besides insists that Russia needs sufficient supports to assist in demilitarizing atomic payloads, disposing of the deadly constituents ( enriched U ) , and procuring all aspects
of the processes. The implications, according to Lugar, are not acceptable. There are many unstable political entities in the modern world who would think nothing of perpetuating a nuclear strike, perhaps even against the U.S.. Countries such as North Korea, Iraq, and Iran are considered by many experts to be potential nuclear threats if they should be allowed to obtain sufficient amounts of enriched uranium which is required to make nuclear weapons. This type of threat may seem far-fetched in certain ways, but recent arrests in west european countries have been for possesion of, or attempting to smuggle raw nuclear materials such as uranium and plutonium. Unfortunately, inventory accounts are believed to be skewed and no one knows for certain how much radioactive material needs to be accounted for in the Eastern Bloc countries. However, Lugar suggests that risks can be reduced by assisting the soviets economically. Overall, he asserts that the U.S. plays the fool in resisting assistance, because we have so much to gain by stimulating a new, virtually untouche economic market that thrills to western technology and fashion, whereas the new democracies of the Eastern Bloc have nothing to lose. (Will, 29; Forbes, 27) Senator Lugar has openly and emphatically tried to persuade two administrations, those of Bush and Clinton, to take a proactive role in the the Bosnian conflict, making requests repeatedly for military involvement. Lugar insists that an effort by the U.S. is needed to ensure the peace process of the war stricken region. It is his opinion that the United States is only adding to its negative image by not becoming involved. America should step in to promote talks and maintain cease fire conditions to prolong an atmosphere conducive to a positive peace agreement.(Cohen, 971; Madison, 1469) Lugar has also been recognized, in part, for the recent release of Americans David Daliberti, and William Barloon who had been detained, tried, and sentenced for illegal border crossing by the Iraqi government. Lugar went on the record stating that the U.S. must,”…indicate that we are considering full diplomatic possibilities, and military options…We ought to do so publicly, firmly and quickly.” Many insiders believe that this stance by a generally level headed senator sent a message to Saddam Hussein—the current leader of Iraq—that the U.S. means business and is willing to enter a combat situation in order to have these American citizens released.(Greenhouse, 3) As one might conclude from the aforementioned refrences, Richard Lugar is a very active statesmen in the realm of foreign affairs. He acknowledges that this degree of involvement could be potentially harmful to a presidential candidate, but offers some solice by suggesting that America needs a president for two primary reasons. One, to make sure the financial state of the country is in good shape, taking every action to remove the national debt. Secondly, to be an effective foreign policy initiator, an example for the world, a dominant leader of the free world.(Miller, 95?) Agriculture Recent headlines spell out the current political climate in Congress. It is a climate of complete contempt between members, and between the legislative and executive branches. What is all the fighting about? The 96? budget of course, and no one appears to be making headway. In fact, at the time of this writing, there has already been one special resolution to extend the deadline to keep the federal government from shutting down. It is only a matter of days before hundreds of thousands of federal employees will be placed on furlow because the government will be unable to make the payroll without proper appriations by the President and Congress. However, there does seem to be some shining stars out there. Senator Richard Lugar may be one of those stars. Richard Lugar is a quite recent appointtee to the Senate’s Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee. It has been the duty and focus of this committee to develop and forge an acceptable budget measure within the scope of its jurisdictions. The negotiations have been extensive commencing early in the spring when Lugar presented his own proposals to cut over fifteen billion dollars in expendutures over a five year period.(Hosansky, 1167) Lugar proposed massive cuts in the farm subsidies programs which were created during the depression era to help farmers stay afloat. He suggests that they are merely another form of welfare. Much of the disagreement with Lugar’s proposal stems from the idea that Lugar is from Indiana which traditionally does not see negative impact on farming conditions like most other farming states. Opponents argue that Lugar’s plan was not realistic and that he must seriously consider new proposals to solve the discord.,,,and he did…his ability to compromise on tough legislation has been a factor in his effeciveness as a lawmaker and policy formulation. The newly proposed legislation has a very good possibility of passing because it has already been agreed on by the House and the Senate, and has also gotten the nod from President Clinton. The new measure calls for cuts in the amounts of subsidies, but not nearly as drastic. The new bill calls for $13.4 billion in cuts over the next seven years in the area of farm subsidies. It would also prevent the Department of Agriculture from adopting a rule requiring a ban on ‘fresh’ labels in the case of poultry chilled below 26 degrees. The new measure will provide $27.6 billion for the federal food stamp program, as well as an increase of $260 million in the Women, Infants, and Children nutrition program. Both programs fall under the jurisdiction of the agriculture department. It appears that all sides have been satified in this particular budget matter for the time being, however, it is unfortunate that the rest of the gang on the hill cannot come to such an agreement. A couple of points are worth addressing in this section. Mainly because of Senator Lugar’s reluctance and refusal to protect measures concerning agricultural legslation. First, it has been noted by many of his colleagues that Lugar is from a farm state, in fact, he still operates the family farm in central Indiana. A farm which benefitted from more relaxed subsidies of the past, it collected over $2,500 in subsidies during 94? alone. Lugar maintains that subsidies are simply taking money from one taxpayer and giving it to another—welfare for farmers. Presidential Campaign Mentioned earlier in this paper was the idea that Senator Richard Lugar has political ambitions that include being the next President of the United States. Lugar can remember wanting to seek the presidency when he was still Mayor of Indianapolis. The following provides a brief overview of Lugar’s policy stances on general issues, especially domestic matters. This is not intended to be complete and absolute platform, but instead a cursory glance to the vision Richard Lugar has for American public policy.