Chapter 2: Population
Key Issue 3: Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries? Rubenstein, pp. 57-69
THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
1. The demographic transition is a processwith several stagesand every countryis in one of them.
2. Fill in the chart below with characteristics describing each stage in the demographic transition model (CBR, CDR, NIR, etc.). Characterize the amount of growth of each stage (high, low, stable, etc.)
Demographic Transition Model
Low life expectancy
High birth rate and death rate
Population fluctuates because of war and disease
Slow growth in population
Life expectancy increases
High birth rate
Death rate rapidly decreasing
Better standard of living
High natural increase
Lesser birth rate
Death rate slowly decreasing
Slowly increasing in population
Low birth rate
Low death rate
Population growth in fluctuating with economic situation
STAGE 1STAGE 2STAGE 3STAGE 4
3. Read about how England passed through the various stages of the model on pages 61 and 62. Describe a historical event for stages 1 and 2 and a cultural attitude for stage 4.
Stage 1 event
Stage 2 Event
Model in England…
Stage 4 attitude
Human don’t only rely on hunting
Major improvement in industrial technology
4. The shape of a pyramid is primarily determined by what demographic rate? Age and gender within the population.
5. What is the dependency ratio?
Dependency ratio= ((Number of age 0-14 and 65 over)÷ (number of aged 15-64))x100
6. What age groups are categorized as “dependent”?
7. What does the “graying” of a population refer to?
Population of people who are retired from work
8. What is the sex ratio?
Number of male to female in the population
9. What types of countries/regions are likely to have more males than
females? Countries at stage 2 of the demographic transition model.
COUNTRIES IN DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
10. In the table below, which represents the four stages of demographic transition, identify a characteristic country which is in that stage and briefly describe how it “got there” as described in the textbook.
Stages of Demographic Transition: Example countries
Large gap of Natural increase rate
Cape Verde stays in stage 1 until 1950 because of severe famines.
They changed from an agriculture to an urban society
Their CBR is unlikely to decrease because of their religion and government Denmark
The population is increasing because of immigration
Due to the number of elderly people, the CDR increases.
STAGE 1STAGE 2STAGE 3STAGE 4
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION AND WORLD POPULATION GROWTH
11. How many countries are in each of the following stages of the demographic transition?
a. Stage 1?
b. Stages 2 and 3?
c. Stage 4?
12. Identify the two “big breaks” in the demographic transition and their causes…
a. The first break- Improvement of technology causes sudden drop in death rate c. The second break- Sudden drop in birth rate because of changing social customs
13. In what sense can we say that the first break came to different world regions for different reasons and in different ways?
a. It came to Europe and North America because of the development of their own technology to improve the quantity and efficiency of their work
b. It came to Africa, Asia, and Latin America due to the influence from Europe to improve the quality of life within the region. Tsai Mong Che (Peter)
Chapter 2: Population
Key Issue 4: Why Might the World Face an Overpopulation Problem? Rubenstein, pp. 69-76
MALTHUS ON OVERPOPULATION
1. Complete the table below to describe the views and theories of various population theorists.
Critics of Malthus
Thomas Malthus argued that because of the natural human urge to reproduce human population increases geometrically (1, 2, 4, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, etc.). However, food supply, at most, can only increase arithmetically (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, etc.).
Thomas says that
The increase of population is limited by the amount of food. Population will increase when the amount of food increase
That the superior power of population is repressed, and the actual population kept equal to the means of subsistence. Neo-Malthusians agree with Malthus that control of population is inevitable. However, they disagree with Malthus that factors like war and famine are the key to population control and reject such simple Ideas. Instead, they promote a number of ideals for example, planned parenthood as a method of population control.
There is enough food for the whole world population, but they are poorly distributed.
Increase in population results in greater power
DECLINING BIRTH RATES
2a. Where was Malthus right?
Population growth needs to be controlled.
2b. In what way was Malthus mistaken?
Although there is high amount of food, it doesn’t mean that the population will also increase because it is poorly distributed
3. What are the only two ways to bring birth rates down?
b. Government control population when, population is on the limit. (China)
4. What two strategies have proven successful to lower birth rates?
a. Economic development
b. Distribution of contraceptives
5. Take notes on important facts regarding the distribution of contraceptives.
Not using a method- 25%
WORLD HEALTH THREATS
6. What is “epidemiologic transition”?
Stages of population growth determined through the distribution of diseases.
7. Complete the table below with notes on the stages of epidemiologic transition.
Stages 1 and 2
Stages 3 and 4
Possible Stage 5
Contagious diseases, famine, infectious and parasitic diseases, mainly caused deaths. Human-created diseases such as heart attacks and cancer, and aging are the cause of death The recurring of infectious and parasitic diseases which will cause higher CDR