4 Models of Health

Models of Health

This study guide is about the various models of health. Use it as a reference in writing essays about models of health.

Introduction

What is health?

Many definitions of health have been proposed, as well as models based on them. Health is defined as “the state of being free from illness or injury” in the Oxford dictionary, but this does not acknowledge the comprehensive approach to health and does not consider the sensory, intellectual, and interpersonal wellbeing that the World Health Organization defined in 1948. ‘Health is more than just the absence of disease or infirmity; it is a state of total physical, mental, and social well-being.’

Blaxter (2010) talked about how the holder’s perception of health and disease defines their health. According to Levy (2007), people’s capacities vary depending on the task at hand; as a result, a natural common meaning of health cannot be developed.

What is ill-health?

Ill health is defined as “a state of inferior health in which some disease or impairment of function is present but is usually not as serious in terms of curtailing activity as an illness” (Merriam-Webster medical dictionary). In general, when people speak of ill health, they usually refer to a mental illness rather than a physical illness, as Sigmund Freud did in the nineteenth century when women were frequently diagnosed with hysteria.

Models of Health

Models and theories of health behavior can assist explain why people and communities act the way they do. These models and ideas can help planners improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of their programs.

Biomedical Model of Health

What is the biomedical model?

The medical model is the most dominant and strong health discourse because it solely defines health as the absence of disease. According to Kemnitz (2010), the medical model is the central medical knowledge system in the Western world, with its primary goal being the treatment of human ailments. The focus of this paradigm is on a person’s physical functioning, and it defines illness and poor health as the presence of disease.

Because of the scientific knowledge required to treat ill health, physicians have more control over a condition than patients. This can lead to conflicts when providing patients with informed choice. Biomedical interpretations of health may be accused of only caring for a patient’s medical issue rather than the individual as a whole. Yuill, Crinson, and Duncan (2010) describe the medical model as limiting and explain that the social model incorporates all aspects of an individual, along with their social, cultural, and psychological origins.

The case study under consideration gives a perfect example of how the medical model of health is limiting. In the study, it is evident that Emma’s lump on the breast is the main cause of physical ill-health. A biomedical approach to the condition warranting removal of the lump and possible surgery seems fit. The approach would however neglect other aspects that are likely to contribute to Emma’s pain such as her family’s history of breast cancer. months, even though

Holistic Model of Health

What is the holistic model of health?

Holistic health is a way of living that takes into account all aspects of well-being. It promotes people to see themselves as a full person, including their physical, mental, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual selves. Individuals are active participants in their own health and healing processes, including wellness-oriented lifestyle decisions.

Holistic health approaches are rooted in ancient healing traditions and aid in the attainment of higher levels of wellness and illness prevention. Traditional medical systems, mind-body-spirit interventions, manipulative and body-based techniques, biologically based therapies, and energy therapies are all examples of these approaches. To give a holistic and integrated approach to health, most of these approaches are utilized in conjunction with one another and with conventional treatment.

Food, herbs, vitamins, teas, homeopathic medicines, and essential oils are all used as “medicine” in these traditional holistic systems. Holistic techniques include activities such as movement, dance, singing or chanting, sound and vibration, drumming, prayer, meditation, mindfulness, and touch. Acupuncture, acupressure, biofeedback, massage therapy, chiropractic physicians, manual therapy, naturopathic physicians, meditation, guided imagery, yoga, therapeutic touch, reiki and other energy therapies, and ayurveda are examples of holistic techniques.

Personal Behaviour Model (Health Belief Model)

What is the personal behavior model of health?

Scientists utilize the Health Belief Model (HBM) to attempt to predict health behaviors. It was first created in the 1950s and then upgraded in the 1980s. The approach is founded on the idea that a person’s willingness to change their health practices is largely determined by their views of their health. Individual perceptions about health and health issues, according to this paradigm, play a role in deciding your health-related activities. The following are important elements to consider when it comes to your health:

  • Any roadblocks you believe may be in your way
  • You are exposed to knowledge that motivates you to act.
  • What do you anticipate the benefits of engaging in healthy practices will be?
  • How vulnerable do you believe you are to illness?

What are the components of the personal behavior model?

The Health Belief Model is made up of six basic components. When the theory was first formed, four of these were main tenets, but two more were added in response to addiction studies on the model.

Perceived Severity

The likelihood that a person will change their health behaviors to avoid a consequence is determined by how serious the consequences are perceived to be. Consider the following scenario:

  • If you’re young and in love, you’re not going to avoid kissing your sweetie on the lips just because they’ve had the sniffles and you don’t want to get their cold. On the other hand, you’d probably stop kissing if you thought it might make you sick.
  • Similarly, when people believe STDs are a minor annoyance, they are less inclined to consider condoms. That’s why, during the AIDS crisis, people were more responsive to messages about safe sex. The gravity of the situation was greatly exaggerated.
Models of Health
The health belief model

The intensity of an illness can have a significant impact on one’s health. However, according to research, perceived risk intensity is the least powerful predictor of whether people will engage in preventive health practices.

Perceived Susceptibility

People are unlikely to modify their health habits until they sense they are in danger. For example:

  • People who do not believe they will catch the flu are less likely to obtain a flu shot every year.
  • People who believe they have a low risk of skin cancer are less likely to use sunscreen or limit their exposure to the sun.
  • Those who believe they are not in danger of contracting HIV through unprotected sexual activity are less likely to use a condom.
  • Smoking cessation is less likely among young people who do not believe they are in danger of lung cancer.

Perceived Benefits

It’s tough to persuade someone to change their behavior if there’s no benefit to them. People are hesitant to give up something they appreciate unless they are compensated in some way. For example:

  • If a person does not believe that quitting smoking will enhance their life in some manner, they are unlikely to do so.
  • If a couple can not perceive how practicing safe sex will improve their sex life, they may not choose to do so.
  • People may refuse to get vaccinated if they do not believe it will benefit them personally.

These perceived benefits are frequently linked to other criteria, such as a behavior’s perceived effectiveness. If you feel that doing regular exercise and eating a nutritious diet might help you avoid heart disease, you will value those activities more.

Perceived Barriers

One of the main reasons people don’t change their health habits is because they believe it will be difficult. Changing your health habits takes time, money, and effort. The following are some of the most commonly perceived roadblocks:

  • The amount of work needed
  • Danger
  • Discomfort, Expenses, Inconveniences
  • Social ramifications

It’s not only just an issue of physical difficulties but also of social difficulty. It may be difficult to cut down on your alcohol consumption if everyone in your office goes out drinking on Fridays. You could be cautious to bring condoms up in a relationship if you believe they are a sign of distrust.

Models of Health
The Health Belief Model

It’s critical to identify solutions to help people overcome perceived barriers when promoting health-related habits like vaccines or STD prevention. Increased accessibility, cost-cutting, or the promotion of self-efficacy attitudes are all ways that disease prevention initiatives can help.

Cues to Action

The Health Belief Model is one of the best since it frames people’s activities accurately. It understands that simply wishing to improve a health behavior isn’t always enough to motivate someone to do so. As a result, it incorporates two more factors that are required to persuade someone to take the plunge. Cues to action and self-efficacy are the two aspects.

External occurrences that motivate a desire to make a health change are known as cues to action. They can range from seeing a blood pressure van at a health fair to seeing a condom ad on a train to losing a family member to cancer. A cue to action is something that encourages people to go from wanting to make a health change to actually doing it.

Self-Efficacy

Self-efficacy was not incorporated into the model until 1988. A person’s belief in their ability to accomplish a health-related change is measured by self-efficacy. It may seem insignificant, but your belief in your capacity to accomplish something has a significant impact on your actual ability to accomplish it.

Individual self-efficacy can be improved, which can have a favorable impact on health-related behaviors. One study indicated that women with a higher sense of self-efficacy when it came to nursing were more likely to nurse their babies for longer. The researchers came to the conclusion that educating moms on how to feel more confident about breastfeeding their babies will help them eat better. You’ll almost certainly fail if you believe you’ll fail. In fact, self-efficacy has been discovered to be one of the most crucial aspects in a person’s capacity to successfully negotiate condom use in recent years.

Social Model of Health

What is the social model of health?

The social model of health, according to Eckersley et al (2001), emphasizes the importance of societal changes and empowers individuals to take charge of their own lifestyles and health in order to create a healthier population.

Models of Health
The social model of health

The concept focuses on socioeconomic variables such as unemployment, bad housing, and poverty that are linked to sickness. For example, according to UK national statistics (2009), life expectancy figures reflect the impact of socioeconomic class and poverty on health and sickness.

Despite the fact that life expectancy in the United Kingdom has increased, UK national statistics (2009) discovered a significant disparity in life expectancy between the working and middle classes.

The social model of health strives to promote personal and community well-being and health by assessing the conditions of social and environmental health factors, as well as biological and medical issues, both locally and nationally.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the significance of models of health?

Models and theories of health behavior can assist explain why people and communities act the way they do. These models and ideas can help planners improve the design, implementation, and evaluation of their programs.

2. What is a medical model of health?

The medical model is the most dominant and strong health discourse because it solely defines health as the absence of disease. According to Kemnitz (2010), the medical model is the central medical knowledge system in the Western world, with its primary goal being the treatment of human ailments. The focus of this paradigm is on a person’s physical functioning, and it defines illness and poor health as the presence of disease.

3. How is the health belief model used?

Scientists utilize the Health Belief Model (HBM) to attempt to predict health behaviors. It was first created in the 1950s and then upgraded in the 1980s. The approach is founded on the idea that a person’s willingness to change their health practices is largely determined by their views of their health.

4. What are the 4 models of health?

  • Biomedical Model of Health
  • Holistic Model of Health
  • Personal Behaviour Model (Health Belief Model)
  • Social Model of HealthModels of Health

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