Pender’s Health Promotion Model

Pender's Health Promotion Model

This essay is about promoting positive health behaviors with Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Study it to gain knowledge concerning the model and its application in nursing practice.

Abstract

As healthcare practitioners, we all have the same aim in mind: to improve our patients’ health and well-being. The notions of health promotion and illness prevention are critical to our work. Nurses may use Pender’s Health Promotion Model to create behavioral modification treatments to help with the improvement and prevention of harmful habits.

Encouragement of health-promoting habits is a key emphasis of nursing. This approach aids nurses in providing the best possible health care to their patients and communities. The investigations included in this article looked into whether Pender’s Health Promotion Model might help people attain good health-promoting behaviors in a variety of settings.

Pender’s Health Promotion Model

What is Pender’s health promotion model?

Dr. Nola J. Pender created the health promotion concept in 1982. Nola J. Pender, the theorist, began her career as a diploma nurse and then earned a doctorate of philosophy in psychology and education (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446). The purpose of nursing care, according to Pender, is to assist patients attain maximum health and well-being. The concept was developed as a result of Pender’s research into health-promoting and preventive habits.

According to the health promotion model, each person’s qualities and life experiences have a direct influence on their health behaviors and choices (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446). Health is defined as a state of well-being rather than the absence of sickness. Since its inception, Pender’s health promotion model has been refined and has had a considerable effect on the work of other theorists (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446).

Individual qualities and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and emotions, and behavioral outcomes are the three primary areas of Pender’s health promotion model (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446). The first category delves into the idea that each person has a unique set of qualities and experiences that affect their behavior (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446).

Pender underlined that one’s previous activities have a direct impact on whether or not they would engage in health-promoting habits in the future (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.447). Personal characteristics and habits may sometimes act as a deterrent to engaging in health-promoting activities.

The second group includes behavior-specific cognitions and feelings, which have a direct influence on a person’s desire to change (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.447). To aid in the formation of beneficial changes, nursing interventions may be customized to these characteristics. The observed advantages and impediments to the action, self-worth and the activity-related outcome are all variables.

The behavioral consequence is the third category (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.447). The beginning of the result is the person’s commitment to take the required measures to achieve a difference. In order to generate a favorable health-promoting habit, the person must be encouraged and hurdles must be removed throughout this period (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.447). The health promotion model’s purpose is to encourage a behavioral change that leads to a better health outcome.

The individual, their environment, health, and nursing are all major themes in Pender’s health promotion paradigm (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.447). The model’s core emphasis is on the individual. The experiences and characteristics of a person have a direct influence on future behaviors and choices (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.448). It’s important to evaluate the learned habits we pick up from our families and communities. These learnt habits have an impact on an individual’s capacity to engage in health-promoting activities (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.448).

The physical, social, and economic circumstances of a person are all part of the environment. A healthy environment is one that is free of contaminants, stable economically, and provides access to services that support healthy living (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.448).

The way one defines health has a direct bearing on the promotion of well-being and illness prevention. Individuals may avoid disease and encourage healthy habits by motivating themselves (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.448). The nurse must consider the individual’s self-worth, the advantages of the change, environmental control, and any possible obstacles to change in order to develop good health-promoting habits.

Literature Review

Voskuil, Robbins, and Pierce (2019) published a paper titled “Predicting Physical Activity Among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Test of the Health Promotion Model” to see whether the health promotion model might help forecast physical activity in the target population. Despite the fact that the health advantages of modest physical exercise are widely documented, many young people are not getting enough of it (Voskuil, Robbins, & Pierce, 2019).

Individuals’ self-efficacy, pleasure, social support, alternatives, and commitment to physical exercise were all gathered as part of the research. Additional information was gathered, including age, BMI, and pubertal status. The sample size was chosen from eight different schools in low-socioeconomic, urban regions, and comprised teenage females in grades 5 through 8.

The teenage females were monitored for seventeen weeks while they undertook a physical exercise intervention. The purpose was to see whether implementing a physical activity intervention will result in long-term moderate-to-vigorous exercise (Voskuil et al., 2019).

The health promotion model was chosen by the researchers because it has previously been successful in elucidating the reasons behind health-promoting behavior in a variety of groups (Voskuil et al, 2019). “The HPM encompasses three categories of factors that impact behavior: (a) individual traits; (b) behavior-specific cognitions and effect; and (c) behavioral contingencies, including a commitment to a plan of action,” Voskuil et al. (2019, p.393).

The researchers looked at how the health promotion model predicted moderate to vigorous physical activity in teenage females (Voskuil et al., 2019). The findings revealed that self-efficacy was the only component that had a significant influence on physical exercise commitment.

Surprisingly, the research found no significant influence of social support, physical activity alternatives, or dedication on the commitment to moderate to intense physical exercise (Voskuil et al., 2019). Furthermore, there was no link between the girls’ biological parameters that were assessed. By extending the research to additional age groups, genders, and populations, the study’s premise might be further tested (Voskuil et al., 2019).

Interventions to help build self-efficacy must be implemented in order to improve physical activity among this demographic. “Intervention tactics demonstrated to be successful for enhancing PA self-efficacy include active online health games, support from instructors, and usage of a multidisciplinary team approach in the school context,” according to Voskuil et al., (2019). (p.405).

Self-efficacy was revealed to be a major predictor of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among teenage females in the health promotion model. School nurses play a vital role in identifying potential obstacles in their student population and developing strategic plans to encourage physical exercise in those who are at risk (Voskuil et al., 2019).

The authors of the article “The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Program on Developing Social Behaviors Based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Prevent Loneliness of Old Women Referred to Gonabad Urban Health Centers” investigated using Pender’s Health Promotion Model to help prevent loneliness in elderly women.

“Because the elderly are confronted with challenges connected to social contacts and interpersonal connections,” Alaviani et al (2015) adds, “many of them identify the aging age as a loneliness period and see it as an unpleasant experience” (p.133). One hundred and fifty senior Iranian ladies visiting the Gonabad urban Health facility for the treatment of mild loneliness were chosen as the study’s subject group.

A quasi-experimental research was conducted, with data gathered using Russell’s UCLA loneliness questionnaire and questions based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model (Alaviani et al., 2015). The intervention structure of Pender’s health promotion model is based on an evaluation of the targeted population (Alaviani et al., 2015). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: intervention or control.

Therapy sessions and loneliness educational in-services were among the interventions. The sessions were designed to enhance the client’s social relationships while also encouraging self-efficacy. The intervention group’s loneliness was reduced as a consequence of the study’s findings.

Pender’s health promotion model, according to the research, may be utilized by nurses to create behavior modification treatments to ameliorate and/or avoid loneliness (Alaviani et al., 2015). We can reduce the risk of depression and other mental health concerns in this group by reducing loneliness (Alaviani et al., 2015).

Having a pet, group therapy, counseling, music therapy, sharing memories, and teaching society to be more accepting of the aging process are all possible ways to prevent loneliness (Alaviani et al., 2015). Nurses may utilize the health promotion model in conjunction with these treatments to aid in the implementation of behavioral changes and, ultimately, the prevention of loneliness.

The authors of “The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women,” Khodaveisi, Omidi, Farokhi, & Soltanian (2017), investigated the effect of Pender’s health promotion model on the nutritional behaviors of overweight women in their article “The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women.”

Obesity is a chronic condition that is becoming more prevalent across the globe. One hundred eight suitable women were randomly assigned to the experimental or control groups in this quasi-experimental trial at the Fatemiyeh Hospital clinic in Iran. Because of its focus on altering harmful habits and promoting health, the health promotion model was selected for this research (Khodaveisi et al., 2017).

Participants’ data was collected via questionnaires completed during the pre-test and post-test two-month periods (Khodaveisi et al., 2017). Educational lectures, question and answer sessions, and group discussions were among the training interventions. The study’s findings revealed that Pender’s health promotion model-based training improved dietary behavior (Khodaveisi et al., 2017).

The research was effective in instilling the importance of a good diet. Individuals’ and their family members’ positive attitudes contribute to long-term changes in dietary practices. We must continue to address risk factors and support health-promoting habits in order to promote healthy lives. “Health-promoting behaviors include activities that allow individuals to assess their health and are, thus, valuable to promote individual and community health,” Khodaveisi, M. et al. (2017) write (p.166).

The role of the healthcare professional in influencing good dietary practices and improving health is shown in this research. The promotion of a healthy lifestyle and nutrition should be emphasized in educational programs (Khodaveisi et al., 2017).

Conclusion

The health promotion model’s major assumptions emphasize that the person is in charge of developing and maintaining their health habits within their environment. Healthcare practitioners have a significant impact on the patient’s surroundings. It must be self-initiated for a behavioral change to occur and be sustained (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.449).

Previous behavior and features of the person must be taken into account since they might have a direct impact on future health-promoting behavior. Self-worth, as well as perceived personal value or advantage, may be motivators for engagement (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.449). When people in their surroundings encourage and demonstrate the activity, it is a significant indicator of dedication to health-promoting behavior.

The health promotion model’s simplicity allows it to be readily adopted in a community health environment (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.450). When health-promoting behaviors are established in the community, we have a chance to improve a patient’s well-being and prevent disease. Pender’s health promotion model is a useful tool in nursing research because it is simple to use (Butts & Rich, p.450).

Pender's Health Promotion Model
Nola Pender Health Promotion Model

The papers examined show how Pender’s Health Promotion Model may have a beneficial impact on and enhance health habits. Today, the importance of healthy lives and habits is even more important, since health insurance is becoming more out of reach for many people owing to rising prices. In order to establish a health-promoting behavioral change, the nurse must personalize their teaching to fit the individual and environmental requirements of their patient, according to Pender’s health promotion model (Butts & Rich, p.451).

References

  • Alaviani, M., Khosravan, S., Alami, A., & Moshki, M. (2015). The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Program on Developing Social Behaviors Based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model to Prevent Loneliness of Old Women Referred to Gonabad Urban Health Centers. IJCBNM3(2), 132-140.
  • Butts, J. B., & Rich, K. L. (2018). Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
  • Health and Wellness (2016, November 17). Retrieved from https://nursekey.com/health-and-wellness-2/
  • Khodaveisi, M., Omidi, A., Farokhi, S., & Soltanian, A. (2017).  The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women. IJCBNM5(2), 165-174.
  • Voskuil, V. R., Robbins, L. B., & Pierce, S. J. (2019). Predicting physical activity among urban adolescent girls: A test of the health promotion model. Research in Nursing & Health42(5), 392–409.
  • Figure 1. Pender’s Health Promotion Model.  Health and Wellness. (2016, November 17). Retrieved from https://nursekey.com/health-and-wellness-2/

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is the role of nursing care?

Pender's Health Promotion Model
A Nurse Caring for a Patient

The purpose of nursing care, according to Pender, is to assist patients attain maximum health and well-being.

2. What do we mean by health?

Health is defined as a state of well-being rather than the absence of sickness.

3. What are the major concepts of the health promotion model?

Individual qualities and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and emotions, and behavioral outcomes are the three primary areas of Pender’s health promotion model (Butts & Rich, 2018, p.446).

Pender's Health Promotion Model

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